■^^^■hhw -E 700 Public Document No. 98 THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Commissioner of Animal Industry. t 1914. ! For the Year ending November 30, 1914, ilol BOSTON: / WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 32 DERNE STREET. 1915. Public Document No. 98 THIED ANNUAL EEPOET ~*~ / * / s H OF THE Commissioner of Animal Industry. 1914. For the Year ending November 30, 1914. BOSTON : WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 32 DERNE STREET. 1915. w Approved by The State Board op Publication. • • > # • • •• • • * * • • .« * * * •• * ( • • i ft • »• • • • •* • * • • »« • • • • • • • * * * ■ » • • 1 < . » • * * • • ••• . • • • ♦. 4 • ft * • » ft • » • • • • • w • * *• .* -J • # • . * *• • • • • (ft • •• » ••• • 9 • • 4 • *• »'• *: • ••. • 9 ft • • • • • i * • • • • • • • • « • . * . • • ■ • * • • • *'• • • * • • • a •* r • •• • • O ft * ••• . • •' ft.c ••• • ».« •» ft ft ®l)C Comtnontocaltt) of Jtlas0acbu0ett0. Department of Animal Industry, Boston, Dec. 1, 1914. To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: — In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, Acts of 1912, which act is entitled "An Act to abolish the Cattle Bureau of the State Board of Agriculture, and to create a Department of Animal Industry," I have the honor to , present to the General Court the third annual report of the work accomplished by this department for the fiscal year end- ing Nov. 30, 1914. The Department of Animal Industry has in its life of less than three years grown to substantial proportions, and, from the viewpoints of completeness of organization and the loyalty and all-round efficiency of its field and office staffs, is regarded by those who have had experience and association with similar departments in other States, and are thereby competent to judge, to have reached an enviable standard of excellence. To the staff of agents above referred to there has during the past year been added two men, Dr. Edward A. Cahill and Dr. William H. Shannon, whose qualifications and fitness for special work cause them to rank among the best. Dr. Edward A. Cahill of Lowell, formerly associated with the Live Stock Sani- tary Board of Pennsylvania, is, in my opinion, an especially valuable man, because his previous training in laboratory and field work in connection with hog-cholera control in Pennsyl- vania has fitted him to engage in that branch of work for this department. Dr. William H. Shannon of Boston, a graduate of the veterinary department of the University of Pennsylvania, although the youngest man in term of service, is displaying a highly enviable degree of energy and interest in the work, and gives great promise of becoming an extremely valuable man for the department. I am confident that the department details are well grounded, and that the policy I sought to establish at the outset of my ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. administration is the correct one, viz., that the department's principal object is to improve the cattle industry of the State, not to injure or destroy it; to promote and safeguard the health of the domestic animals in the State; to establish a spirit of co-operation between the owners of stock and the department rather than a spirit of hostility; to educate rather than persecute the individual owner, and, while insisting upon law observance, to see that justice is meted out to every one. Under such a policy, with a continuance of the splendid loyalty now existent in the working force, Massachusetts must occupy a leading position in live-stock sanitary control work. I wish to emphasize the fact that owners of stock, almost without exception, have met the representatives of this depart- ment in a spirit of co-operation, and the agents of the depart- ment are no longer avoided by them, but are sought for con- sultation and advice. The activity of owners of barns where neat cattle are housed, in the way of making sanitary changes as. suggested by department inspectors, is a marked feature of improvement, and is most commendable. Every succeeding year of this policy of education, of persuasion rather than perse- cution, must bring results more and more satisfying. The general work of the department has not differed in nature from that of the years immediately preceding. It has, however, been much more exhaustive in character and com- plete in detail, as the result of a more perfected organization and efficiency born of experience. Rabies. The following table shows the extent of rabies during the year ending Nov. 30, 1914: — Dogs. Cattle. Cats. Horses. Pigs. Killed or died with rabies, Killed by owners or died in quarantine, not rabid. Released from quarantine, Animals still in quarantine, 250 184 277 49 5 1 3 1 1 1 1 8 428 Totals, 760 9 2 2 436 1,209 animals. 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 At the laboratory, the brains of 108 dogs and 1 cat were examined microscopically by Dr. Langdon Frothingham, and of these, 78 dogs were positive and 24 negative. The cat was also found to have had rabies. The heads of seven other' dogs were received at this laboratory too badly decomposed to per- mit of an examination to determine whether or not the animals were rabid at the time of death. It is regrettable that there is an increase in the number of cases of rabies in dogs over that of last year, and much to be deplored that animals manifesting strange symptoms are not more promptly placed in confinement and watched until either found to be free from disease, or symptoms of a suspicious character have developed. At the expense of repeating my former advice along this line, I would say that the early recognition of the symptoms of rabies makes the prompt reporting to the proper authorities* possible. Such early reports promptly acted upon tend to re- duce greatly the number of outbreaks of the disease, and logi- cally would lessen immensely the number of persons who annu- ally find it necessary to take the Pasteur treatment because either bitten by or exposed to rabid animals. Over 100 people have been so exposed this year, of which by far the greater number were children. The unknown or ownerless animal still plays a prominent part in this trouble, and this shows the necessity for the proper enforcement of the laws relating to the licensing of all dogs, and the humane destruction of such waifs of the canine world as are to be found in every community. Some few owners from time to time complain of the irksome- ness of the period of quarantine placed upon animals believed to have been exposed to a case of rabies, but the wisdom of the department's action is evident when it is pointed out that animals frequently develop rabies during the latter part of the period of quarantine, and in fact during the past year one animal did develop the disease after the ninety-day period had expired. 6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Glanders. Not by any means the least important of the problems that confront this department is that of control of glanders. As a result of the more recently enacted laws and of a more com- pletely adjusted and well-organized campaign against this disease, I have to report most flattering success in this branch of our control work during the past year, as the following fig- ures and statements will emphasize. Eighteen hundred and seventeen horses and mules have dur- ing the past year been reported as suspected of having glanders or farcy, including those dealt with in stable tests. Of this number, 846 were killed or died, and were found to be affected with glanders; 928 were released after examination, and 43 were held for further observation. Of the 38 cases held over from last year, 5 were killed or died, 16 were released as free from, disease, and 17 are still under observation, making a total of 851 cases of glanders during the year. Of this number, 352 were located in the city of Boston. It will be noted that although 187 more suspected cases were reported and examined by agents of the department, the num- ber of actual cases found was 255 less than in the previous year. In the report submitted for the year ending Nov. 30, 1913, it was mentioned that as a means of further checking the spread of glanders it was deemed necessary to order the closing of the public drinking troughs in the city of Boston, as in that year 52 per cent, of the positive cases found in Massachusetts were discovered in the city of Boston. The report stated that on November 1 this order had been complied with. The public works department of the city of Boston, by pro- viding taps at convenient locations throughout the city, enabled drivers to obtain water without great inconvenience either to themselves or to the horses in their charge. Considerable pres- sure was brought to bear to have these troughs opened during the summer months, but, believing my stand on the matter to be right, I was able to overcome the objections raised, and kept the troughs closed. I have failed to find from reports re- ceived that any undue suffering was caused, and in fact the 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 closing of these public drinking places has not only been bene- ficial from the standpoint of glanders control, but I have been informed by a great many owners of horses and by several veterinarians that there had been fewer " colics" or cases of indigestion this past summer than ever before. The wisdom of having taken this step is well proven by the fact that there were killed in Boston this year only 352 horses affected with glanders, against 576 horses killed in 1913, a falling off of 224, or 39 per cent., whereas in the balance of the State there were 497 horses killed in 1914, against 530 in 1913, a falling off of 33 cases, or 6 per cent., thereby showing that the greatly reduced number in the city of Boston must have been due to some cause other than a natural subsidence in the disease itself. The watering troughs in the following cities were also ordered closed : — Cambridge Chelsea Medford Everett Somerville Maiden Quincy The advisability of requiring that all horses arriving from the States of New York, Rhode Island and Connecticut shall be accompanied by a permit issued from this department is shown by the fact that of 268 horses tested by agents of the department after having been admitted under such permits, 21 were found to be suffering from glanders, and were killed. The ophthalmo-mallein test, material for which is obtained from the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, is proving to be of great value in conjunction with the complement- fixation test in the diagnosing of doubtful and nonclinical cases. It is also being employed in the making of stable tests, with highly satisfactory results. The subcutaneous injection of mallein has been discontinued, as it has been found to detract from the value of other diag- nostic tests. During the year, 1,688 samples of blood have been taken from 1,274 horses. Of this number, 447 horses were killed, 777 released, 25 died, and 25 are held for further test. 8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Eight hundred and seventy-three ophthalmo-mallein tests were applied during the year, with the following results: 261 gave positive results, 533 were negative and 79 unsatisfactory. A more thorough system of disinfection was adopted during the past year, an agent of the department inspecting the work done before compensation for a condemned animal is allowed. The blacksmith in whose shop the horse was last shod is obliged to disinfect the walls, chains, etc., in said shop. Early in December a copy of the following letter was sent to every horseshoeing establishment in Boston: — The Commonwealth op Massachusetts, Department of Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Nov. 24, 1913. Dear Sir: — You will find enclosed copy of a recent order issued by me relative to the disinfection of blacksmith shops in the city of Boston; also copy of the rules and regulations of this department for disinfection. It is not necessary for me to bring to your attention the grave condition that confronts the horse-owning interests of Boston and vicinity because of the prevalence of glanders. In order to control the further spread of this disease so far as we can, may I ask you to co-operate with me along the lines of the enclosed order? It applies to all premises where horses, asses or mules are shod, and an agent of this department will visit your place from time to time to see if its provisions have been complied with. Certificate of this department to that effect will be furnished on applica- tion. Thanking you in advance for giving this matter immediate and constant attention, I am Respectfully yours, Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Enclosed with this letter was a copy of the following order: — The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department op Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Nov. 1, 1913. To Owners and Tenants of Blacksmith Shops in the City of Boston: — Whereas the disease of glanders among horses in the city of Boston has spread to such an alarming extent as to call fcr special effort for its pre- vention and control, and whereas blacksmith shops are, in my opinion, a factor in the spread of said disease, 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 I, therefore, acting under authority vested in me by law, and with the approval of the Governor and Council, as set forth in section 4 of Depart- ment Order No. 1, hereby order: — All blacksmith shops within the limits of the city of Boston must be kept freshly whitewashed and disinfected. Hitch ropes, chains, or other means of confining animals while in the shop must be sponged, sprayed with or dipped in a disinfectant solution, and walls faced by animals must be disinfected at least once a day. The floors whereon animals are allowed to stand must be disinfected at least once a week. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. (Rules for disinfecting will be sent upon application.) Following this letter a systematic inspection of all shops has been made, 142 having been visited during the year. Many of these shops have been frequently visited by agents of the department, as a result of which 99 shops are now being regu- larly disinfected, and are, in the opinion of our agents, satis- factorily safe establishments. I still believe that the amount of compensation now allowed for condemned horses is inadequate if eradication of glanders is ever to be accomplished; it hinders rather than aids in the final disposition of horses which show no clinical symptoms but react to the glanders test made in stables where clinical cases have occurred, which horses I believe it highly necessary should be disposed of promptly. Reports of rendering companies, as required by section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, continue to be of much value in furnishing information of cases of glanders or farcy which would not otherwise be brought to the attention o£ the department, as the following table illustrates: — 10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Reports of Rendering Companies. Rendering Companies. Number of Reports. Number of Cases. Number not previously reported. W. H. Abbott, Holyoke 1 1 - C. S. Bard, Haverhill, 3 3 - Daudelin & Cotton, Ayer, 1 1 - William S. Higgins, Saugus, 22 23 1 Home Soap Company, Millbury, 7 12 - . William Lavery, Amesbury, 3 4 - Lowell Rendering Company, Lowell, 7 7 - A. G. Markham & Co., Springfield, 1 2 - James E. McGovern, Andover, 2 2 1 Muller Brothers, Cambridge, . 38 130 - William H. Nankervis, Marlborough, 6 6 1 New Bedford Extractor Company, . 23 29 - New England Rendering Company, Brighton, 36 79 15 Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, Peabody, 21 39 - N. Roy, Jr., Fall River, 26 32 - Sherborn Rendering Company 4 5 - N. Ward Company, South Boston, .... 49 304 6 « Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company, North Chelmsford. S. Winter Company, Brockton, .... 7 13 9 18 : Worcester Rendering Company, .... 7 12 - Totals, . . . 277 718 24 Interstate Horses. Under Department Order No. 8, which went into effect Oct. 29, 1913, prohibiting the shipment of horses, asses or mules from the States of New York, Connecticut or Rhode Island into Massachusetts without a permit issued from this department, the work performed is shown by the following statistics : — Animals brought into State. Mules, 27 Asses, 5 Donkeys, 3 Horses, 5,064 5,099 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 Disposition of Above Animals. Died soon after arrival, 3 Condemned for glanders or farcy, 23 Released as free from glanders upon examination or test by agents of the department, 5,073 5,099 Of the 23 interstate horses condemned by the State, 2 showed no lesions of glanders or farcy upon post-mortem ex- amination, and in these cases the owners have been compen- sated for their loss by the Commonwealth. These 23 animals are included in the total number of horses condemned during the year for glanders or farcy. Annual Inspection of Neat Cattle, Farm Animals and Premises upon which the Former are kept. In January a copy of the following circular letter was sent to each inspector of animals in the cities and towns of the State, together with blank books in which to record the results of their work: — The Common-wealth op Massachusetts, Office of Department of Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Jan. 1, 1914. Directions to Inspectors of Animals. In accordance with section 17, chapter 90 of the Revised Laws, in- spectors of animals are hereby directed to make a general inspection of all neat cattle, sheep, swine and goats found within the limits of their several cities and towns, such inspection to commence January 15, and to be completed on or before the first day of March, 1914- If upon examination the inspectors find such animals to be free from contagious disease, they will give the owner or person in charge thereof a certificate of health, as provided for in section 18 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws; but if an inspector has reason to suspect the presence of any contagious disease among any species of domestic animals, he is to quarantine such animal or animals and send duplicate copy of such quar- antine to the Commissioner of Animal Industry. Contagious diseases under the provisions of section 28 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws include glanders, farcy, mange, contagious pleuro- pneumonia, tuberculosis, Texas fever, foot-and-mouth disease, rinder- pest, hog cholera, rabies, anthrax or anthracoid diseases, sheep scab and actinomycosis. 12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Inspectors of animals are hereby directed to inform owners of premises when in their opinion conditions are not up to the requirements, and to give instruction to have the same changed or improved. Books will be forwarded (Form No. 1) for carrying out the provisions of sections 17 and 24 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws. Ten questions may be answered by checking the word "Yes" or "No;'' that is, if the answer to the question is "Yes," a check mark or cross is to be made on or through the word "Yes." Four questions may be answered by checking the proper word in the question; that is, question No. 9 reads: "Is stable clean, un- clean, or filthy?" If stable is clean, the word "clean" is to be checked or crossed; if stable is unclean, the word "unclean" is to be checked or crossed, etc. Two questions, Nos. 10 and 16. require the answers to be written cut in full; these refer to the disposal of manure and to the nature of improve- ments made in either the buildings or surroundings during the past year. It is sincerely hoped that the inspection this spring will be a thorough one, and it is requested that the answers to the questions be carefully made. The books necessary for this inspection will be forwarded at once. Form No. 1 is to be returned to this office by prepaid express as soon as inspection is completed. Fred F. Walker, Commissioner. In referring to this important feature of the department's 1 work I feel that at this time it is entirely proper for me to state, with especial emphasis, that decidedly pronounced im- provement has been made in the sanitary conditions of all farm buildings and their environments. A new plan has been adopted during the past year under which local inspectors of animals, acting under specific directions from the department's headquarters, become in a more complete sense of the word agents of the department. A new form for recording condi- tions found by local inspectors, on their annual visitation to the various farms in their individual localities, provided that by the use of carbon two copies of their record could be secured, one of which, was left with the owner and the other retained by the inspector, and from the latter full record was made in the regular so-called blue book furnished for returning report to the office of the department. At the time a copy of this record is left with the owner of the premises, such recommendations for improved conditions, if any, as are necessary, in the opinion of the inspector, are 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 brought to the attention of the owner by that inspector, and the owner is requested to make such improvements. A later visit is made by the local inspector, at which time, if conditions are found to have been decidedly improved, the report sub- mitted to the department in the blue book above referred to credits the owner with the conditions found on the second visit. Inspired by the ambition to have their buildings re- ported in the most favorable class, owners frequently follow the recommendations made by the inspector. As a result, many of the cases that would formerly have been called to the atten- tion of our district agents are satisfactorily disposed of locally, giving our district agents a greater opportunity to make general supervision of the areas under their charge. In consequence, many places not especially referred to by local representatives as unsatisfactory have been investigated by our district agents, who have thereby been able to confirm the earlier local report, or have had an opportunity, if finding conditions below the de- partment's standard, to bring the same to the attention of the local inspector and instruct him intelligently in reference to his course of procedure in the future. A continuance of this policy will, in my opinion, rapidly raise the standard of our Massachusetts dairy barns to a high order of excellence. In fact, a marked improvement is now apparent, and from many sections of the State we have re- ceived most decidedly flattering reports from citizens not at all associated with the department but who are interested in general sanitary work. The following table embodies a condensed report of the doings of the inspectors of animals in making the annual in- spection, which complies with the requirements of section 24, chapter 90, Revised Laws. For comparison, the corresponding figures for 1913 are also given: — ■ 14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Net Results of Annual Inspection of Animals and Farm Premises. 1913. 1914. Number herds inspected, .... Number neat cattle inspected, Number cows inspected, Number herds kept clean and in good condition, Number sheep inspected, .... Number swine inspected, .... Number goats inspected, .... Number stables inspected, .... Number stables well located, Number stables well drained, Number stables well ventilated, Number stables well lighted, . . . Number stables kept clean, .... Number stables with good water supply, Number stables improved since last inspection, 30,655 29,543 224,951 218,786 158,116 152,636 27,227 28,474 24,847 19,319 71,114 59,221 1,249 1,086 32,055 30,638 29,472 27,926 30,776 30,258 30,112 30,150 28,128 29,398 26,549 29,044 31,683 30,470 3,370 4,209 The following table embodies a condensed report of the work of the district agents in the matter of barn inspection, which complies with the requirements of chapter 381 of the Acts of 1911: — 1915.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 OS go .© co © CO •to •<o 5, 03 ^ CO CO 1« 00 »o •e^ox r- CO o iO OO TJH CO^ oo CO «5 Tin' CM T-H >o 00 t^ t-h r- 1 CO l -9WM "X 'M. *a !>. CO •& CM CO lO 00 CO ■* o UO •saSm^g -j j -jq: CO CM I>- OO IO T-H OS CO 1>- CO CO O iO OS •s^jaqoy; -h •£ -jq OS oo oo CO CO t-h CM CM -* CM CM OO CO T-H t>. •aoiraj -ay 'H ^d t^ £-- "*l T-H cm O0 "*H T— 1 tH -* OS •nmbBj -h ua co o t-h CO 00 03 OO CM r^ co CM t-h Ttl o ^ CO O OS -HH •aSrej a -h 'JO CO cm CM CM T-H cq co CM OS CO T* OJ CO IO •jauxj\[ 'i -j\[ -jq CO 'CM CM 1-^ CM CM 00 CM • -tfl m a> CO IO OS 00 •uotibj\[ Q -^ -apf oo to CO CO ■^1 CM ^ T-H CM lO . ^ o 1 OS CM •uoun'BH -fj -g; -jq T-H CM o CM T-H "- 1 OO o© t* ** O T-H CM CM •^qrea T '0 "*W CM CO CM o CM Ui IO -HH 03 iO o i OS 1 •m^o v - a '^a OS t^. CO <M <3> CO OJ CM t^ •ip>p?a 'M o ^a CO m CM 00 00 o CO CO OS l^ -ljoaouBg -g -^ -jk CO 00 OO IO o co CO UO co 1 CO 1 a -s a <B — <u • rH . a h a >> u CD ssar ove o3 O CO CO CD CD >-> a o a CD a § a ti •-H .-i ; — | >> G3 ►*> C3 >> 03 to <- co CD Kl a o m o « o CD o CD S 1 CD O '/I fc a s o '■+3 i CJ "3 oT tnore tha ade. nee, not a a 03 CD CD a r/j a o SI 1 cd a> T3 ted ts in edo O a u "m ■r o G '7; Pal to CD 'ti •n m '/) CD ro <D 7) CD f/l CD cd CD ii CD 73 CD ^ CD "C CD > SP3 g eg a« c 3 S X> XI X3 ^ 2 «3 n «? rt c $ a *» i CO CO 03 CO CO CO CO 16 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Tuberculosis. The war against tuberculosis in cattle is still conducted, in a general way, as described in earlier reports on this disease. It includes the examination and report by local inspectors; the taking up by an agent of the department, who finally disposes of the same, of the cases reported as suspicious; and the tuber- culin testing of all cattle received from without the State. This latter work is being done by approved veterinarians in the States from which the cattle come, or by agents of this department, either at the quarantine station or at the various receiving points throughout the State. The following figures show the number of cattle so tested and the results obtained: — Cattle Tuberculin Tested. Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, . 17,411 Cattle tested by veterinarians outside of the State : — Received at Brighton, . . . . 674 Received at other points, .... 2,042 2,716 Cattle tested by agents of the department at points other than the quarantine station, . . . . 3,518 — 23,645 Disposition of Above Cattle. . Cattle condemned on Brighton test, 587 Cattle killed on "permit to kill," tested at Brighton, . 13 Cattle released from Brighton, 17,485 Cattle condemned, tested at other points than Brighton, 86 Released for slaughter, subject to inspection, ... 2 Released on satisfactory test, 5,472 23,645 The foregoing shows that substantially the same number of cattle was received at Brighton as in the previous year, the shortage as recorded being occasioned by the closing of the market during the last three weeks of the official year on account of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease. The work at the quarantine stations is, as formerly, under the direct supervision of Agent Frank C. Field. The general excellence of the work done by the efficient corps of assistants under his supervision is best instanced by the fact that not a single complaint has been filed at the office in reference to that 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 work that could be substantiated by fact when investigated; and especially by the further fact that of the 17,411 cattle re- ceived at Brighton and tested there, 587 or 3§ per cent, reacted to the tuberculin test, and only one of such reactors failed to show lesions of tuberculosis on post-mortem examination. The revenue received from testing cattle owned by non- residents of Massachusetts amounted during the year to $3,776.50, which sum largely offsets the cost of maintenance of quarantine stations. The following figures show the number of neat cattle quar- antined by local inspectors, the number for which warrants were issued and the disposition made of the animals: — Total number of cattle quarantined or reported for examination during the year, . ' . . 2,259 Massachusetts Cattle. Number released, ... . . ' . . . 288 Number condemned, killed and paid for, . . 880 Number condemned and killed, in process of set- tlement, 141 Number permit to kill, paid for, .... 63 Number permit to kill, no award, . . . . 174 Number died in quarantine, no award, ... 36 1,582 Cattle from without the State. Number released, 12 Number condemned and killed, no award, . . 654 Number condemned and killed, no lesions found, paid for, 6 Number still in process of settlement, ... 5 677 Total, 2,259 Of the 677 interstate cattle, 575 were tested at Brighton; no lesions were found in 1, for which the State has reimbursed the owner. Of the remaining 101 cattle (which were tested at other points than Brighton) 5 were found to show no lesions, for which the State has reimbursed the owners, and 5 cases are still unsettled. In addition to the 2,259 head of cattle disposed of as above, 133 cattle and 27 swine have been reported by butchers, ren- 18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. derers and boards of health as having been found tuberculous at the time of slaughter, all of which were rendered. The following statistics in connection with the maintenance of a quarantine against other States, to prevent the introduc- tion of tuberculous cattle from outside sources into Massa- chusetts, show the number and kind of animals brought in from without the State to the several quarantine stations, the quarantine, however, being against neat cattle only: — Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stock Yards, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Not. 30, 1914. New Hampshire cattle, Vermont cattle, . Massachusetts cattle, Sheep, . Calves, . Swine, . 9,657 5,056 3,683 2,618 26,142 4,116 Receipts of Stock at the Neiv England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's Yards at Somerville, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Nov. 30, 1914. Maine cattle, 1,731 New Hampshire cattle, . . . 1,240 Vermont cattle, 8,155 Western cattle, . . . . 12,539 Canada cattle, 2,062 Sheep, 452,438 Calves, 47,798 Swine, . . . . - ■ . . . . . . .... 994,265 Receipts of Stock at Brighton, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Nov Maine cattle, New Hampshire cattle, Vermont cattle, . Massachusetts cattle, New York cattle, Western cattle, Canada cattle, Sheep, . Calves, . Swine, . 30, 1914- 12,857 4,809 5,591 14,766 18,079 10,198 155 14,521 55,240 46,700 The cattle upon which a tuberculin test is required are mostly milch cows to be offered for sale at the Brighton market Wednesdays, besides a few bulls and working oxen. Those 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 animals that come to Watertown or Somerville are taken to Brighton, and all of the testing is done at the stock barn there. During the year Department Orders 9, 10 and 11 were issued, printed on large placards and posted on the quarantine grounds. The purpose of these orders, similar to those issued in previous years, was to prevent the spread of contagion from any cattle which might be brought from districts infected with Texas fever or other contagious disease. Order No. 11 practically revokes orders 9 and 10, and is as follows: — Order No. 11.- The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department op Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Oct. 28, 1914. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Whereas the diseases known as Texas fever and foot-and-mouth disease , which are contagious diseases and are so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, prevail among cattle in some of the States and territories of the United States, and whereas animals infected with or exposed to said diseases are likely to be brought upon the premises of the Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting Association at Brighton, the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company at Somerville, or the premises of Stur- tevant & Haley at Somerville, for slaughter, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — The premises of the Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting Association at Brighton, the slaughtering department on the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company at Somerville, and the premises of Sturtevant & Haley at Somerville, are hereby quarantined. Neat cattle shall be brought upon them for immediate slaughter only. Cattle brought upon these premises shall not be removed alive, but shall be slaughtered. This order shall be published by posting three or more copies upon the premises of the Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting Association at Brighton in the city of Boston, three or more copies upon the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in Somerville, and three or more copies upon the premises of Sturtevant & Haley in Somerville. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council Nov. 4, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. 20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Report of Cattle brought into State during the Year to Points outside of the Quarantine Stations. For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 2,042 For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 3,518 5,560 Neat cattle on which no test was required, exclusive of cattle and calves for immediate slaughter, .... 1,587 The last item is made up as follows : — Returned from out-of -State pastures, .... 1,026 Calves under six months old, 165 Died before test could be made, 2 For temporary stay on exhibition or at auctions, . 391 Remaining in State for brief periods only, ... 3 Cattle for immediate slaughter, 4,069 Calves for immediate slaughter, . . . . . . .6,140 — - 10,209 Total for all purposes, . . 17,356 Nearly all of the total number of animals given above were brought into the State on permits issued by the head of the department, only 580 having been brought in without permits, which were reported to the department by railroad agents,, local inspectors or others. Of these, 104 were tested before shipment, 87 were slaughtered at once for beef or veal, 37 were kept in the State only temporarily, 3 were calves under six months old, 126 were returned from pasture, and the re- mainder, 223 head, were tested by agents of the department. The following figures show the disposition of animals brought into the State to points outside of the quarantine stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville which failed to pass a satisfactory tuberculin test : — Condemned on first test, .43 Condemned on second test, . .41 Reacted, but died before retest could be made, 1 Failed to react on second test, but showed physical symptoms, 1 Released for slaughter on first test; subject to inspection, . . 2 88 In five of the above cases in which warrants to kill have been issued, report of post-mortem examination has not yet 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 been received; in 1 case the result cannot now be known, al- though the animal was probably tuberculous; 2 head were in a herd affected with foot-and-mouth disease, and were killed be- cause of that disease before warrants issued for their slaughter on account of tuberculosis could be executed; 2 head released for slaughter on first test were found to be diseased, as was the animal that failed to react on second test; the carcass of the animal that died before it could be retested showed indications of disease; in 9 head no lesions of tuberculosis were found upon post-mortem examination, and the animals either have been or will be paid for by the State; the remainder, 67 head, all proved to be tuberculous. There were 1,044 permits issued, 156 of which were not used. Eleven permits were issued for pasturing herds in the State during the season; 2 were issued allowing cattle to be unloaded in transit through the State; and 11 special permits to persons living near the border line, allowing cattle to be kept in the State for brief periods without test. During the spring and early summer agents of the depart- ment examined and tagged 1,816 Massachusetts cattle which were to be sent into New Hampshire and Vermont for pasture during the season. Some of these were returned in the fall on special permits, and many were brought to the quarantine sta- tion at Brighton, where they were identified and released by the agent in charge of that station. After November 7 no cattle were allowed to be brought into the State except for immediate slaughter, and then only to establishments which were under federal inspection, because of the quarantine restrictions which went into force early in No- vember on account of the discovery of foot-and-mouth disease; otherwise the total receipts of live stock from out of the State would probably have been considerably larger. For several years, at the request of the United States Depart- ment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of all live stock at the port of Boston has been sent to Washington each month. The report is made to show weekly receipts. The following table shows the receipts, by months, for the past year : — 22 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Receipts of Live Stock at Boston for Twelve Months ending Nov. 30, 1914- For Month of — • Cattle. Calves. Sheep. Swine. Horses. December, 13,793 10,422 53,509 163,781 1,859 January, 9,518 7,700 37,166 107,948 1,760 February, 7,590 8,102 28,000 81,168 1,816 March, 8,809 13,784 34,495 100,393 2,616 April, . 6,638 10,298 20,682 69,728 2,288 May, . 6,313 13,582 21,652 71,337 2,497 June, . 8,738 14,909 35,399 113,926 3,076 July, . 6,424 10,055 40,048 73,632 1,985 August, 10,790 12.76S 45,836 71,300 2,487 September, 10,844 9,547 49,340 58,882 2,398 October, 11,564 11,488 55,707 68,623 2,605 November, 9,557 8,525 47,743 63,365 1,992 Totals, 110,578 131,180 469,577 1,044,083 27,379 Such owners of cattle as have voluntarily petitioned the department for the tuberculin testing of their herds by the State have been accorded this privilege where conditions seemed to justify it. Two persons made voluntary requests to have their herds so tested, — the herds comprising 28 head of cattle, 27 of which were found to be free from disease, and 1 was slaughtered on a permit to kill, no award allowed. Hog Cholera. In June of 1914 the department began an active campaign against hog cholera in this State. Such a campaign was found necessary because of the large number of deaths in swine, and the corresponding financial loss to farmers due to the disease. While Massachusetts is not considered a hog-raising State, it is known that we have more than our proportionate share of hog cholera as compared with the hog-raising western States, and because of this there is a great diminution in the number of swine in the State, as shown by the following statistics : — Number of Swine in Massachusetts. 1912, 1913, 1914, 98,836 71,114 59,221 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 There is a visible decrease in these years of 39,615 animals, which indicates plainly the loss to both State and farmer. This decrease is known to be due principally to hog cholera. The majority of hog raisers have had their herds of swine so often and so completely destroyed by the disease that, in spite of the fact that there is more profit in swine to-day than ever before, it has become necessary for them to give up raising rather than to restock and risk another loss. Inasmuch as the value of serum treatment for hog cholera has proven satisfactory, I decided to make this a branch of the departmental activity to aid the public, and consequently in June this branch of the work was actively begun. As a result of our demonstrational and educational work among the. farmers and veterinarians, and judging from actual statistics given be- low, we feel that we have laid an excellent foundation for the immunization work which is to follow next year. During the past year 100 outbreaks of cholera were reported. Of this number, 80 proved upon investigation to be positive cases; in the remaining 20 suspected outbreaks, no hog cholera was found. This gives only a slight idea of the amount of hog cholera which actually exists in the State. It has been custom- ary for years for owners not to report the existence of hog cholera in their herds because so little could be done for it, and the farmer, until recently, would either slaughter the ani- mals or allow them to die. As a result of our activity with serum as a preventive and curative, public interest has been aroused, more cases have been reported, and State aid has been requested. As far as our records show, approximately 900 head of swine died last year without treatment, or previous to our using serum in control work. If all animals which actually died of hog cholera had been reported, I believe this number would have been tripled. Previous to June 1 anti-hog-cholera serum was used on 315 animals in 10 herds. Of this number, 89, or 29 l t per cent., died following treatment. Up to this time the double treatment had not been used except experimentally. During the remain- der of the year 591 animals in 18 herds received the simul- taneous or double treatment. Of this number 12, or 2 per cent., 24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. died after the treatment. In the same length of time 428 animals in 31 infected herds received the single treatment, and 41, or 9.5 per cent., died. The usual mortality from hog cholera is from 90 to 100 per cent, of all animals on infected premises; con- sequently the above figures would indicate that to date we have saved by the use of the single and double treatments 1,264 animals, which have been vaccinated, have recovered and been released. This represents a saving to the farmers of ap- proximately $12,000 since June 1. In addition to the above there are still five herds which are under observation and treatment, in which our work has not been completed. In these five herds there are approximately 4,000 animals, of which number 3,000 have received the double treatment, and 1,000 the single treatment. Results in these cases will be ascertained later, inasmuch as sufficient time has not yet elapsed since treatment to determine them properly at this time. In all five of these herds a large percentage of animals has been lost each year from cholera for a period of from four to twenty years past. In each instance following vaccination, losses from the cholera, which was present at the time of vaccination, have ceased completely, at least temporarily. One striking factor in this work is that all of the above herds have been badly infected ones. In two herds in which the animals have been inoculated and in which no infection existed, there has not been a single death. We have proven conclusively that the double treatment, properly administered by experts under proper conditions, is absolutely safe, and a sure pre- ventive if used on noninfected farms. On the other hand, it has been proven in other States that the promiscuous or un- scientific use of virus is the most dangerous factor connected with the spread of the disease of hog cholera. Regarding the single treatment, as our results indicate, this has been used practically only on animals which were infected, and therefore may be regarded as a curative. While strictly speaking we do not advocate serum as a curative agent, we have had excellent results when using it in infected herds, the percentage of deaths, 9.5, being extremely low. In our work there has been a noticeable lack of deaths due to abscesses 1915.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 and infections following vaccination. This has generally been the cause of many deaths which have followed vaccination, and it is gratifying to find that our percentage is practically nothing. This, of course, is due to the fact that our agents take all recognized antiseptic precautions, and insist on proper after- care of the animals. The most objectionable feature of the work as at present carried on is the fact that we are necessarily obliged to depend entirely upon commercial virus and serum. This has resulted in our using virus, in at least two instances, which was impo- tent, and which, instead of causing a permanent immunity in the vaccinated animals, caused merely a temporary one, with embarrassing after results. While we use commercial virus, this complication is liable to arise at any time ; and in my opinion it is absolutely imperative that, if the department is to do necessary work in connection with hog cholera, the State should have its own facilities for making virus at least, if not serum. At present the only cost to the farmer is that of the serum and virus used on his animals. This is now 2 x /i cents per cubic centimeter, or approximately 1 cent per pound of live weight, which deters a great many owners from having even the serum treatment alone used. If we were able to manufacture our own serum, we could reduce the cost to the farmer at least 1 cent per cubic centimeter. We should either furnish the highest grade serum and virus free, or make our own and sell it at cost, when used by agents of this department. This, of course, would require an appropriation. The few following fundamental facts have been established by our work: — 1. That in noninfected herds we can confer a lasting im- munity with practically no danger. As a resirit, we urge the double treatment in noninfected herds in infected neighbor- hoods. In noninfected herds in neighborhoods where no chol- era exists, we do not advise treatment. 2. That the double treatment is of high value for well ani- mals in infected herds, as it confers a lasting immunity. 3. That it pays to use the " serum only" treatment on swine showing symptoms of acute cholera. 4. That it does not pay to use scrum on chronic cases. 26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. i it In addition to the above, we are doing a large amount of experimental -work. This is, of course, absolutely necessary. Among the most important requirements for carrying on this work, which we now lack, are a cheaper method of immuniza- tion of young pigs and a curative agent in chronic cases. The situation is at present most encouraging. The public has awakened to the fact that it can receive State aid, and that this department is handling the serum treatment most advantageously. As a result, cases are being reported more promptly, quarantines are being better observed, and the de- mand for serum treatment even now taxes the resources of the department. We hope in the coming year to do very much more work along this line, particularly among herds of individual farmers. Thus far a large percentage of our work has been in herds owned by State and other institutions, but indications are that the coming year will see much more vaccination among the farmers' herds. The statistics in connection with the work of hog cholera given above are also given below in tabular form. Hog Cholera Statistics. Number of outbreaks reported, 100 Number of outbreaks reported not cholera, upon examination, . 20 Number of reported swine known to have died without treatment, approximate, 900 Number of herds known to be infected, 65 Number of herds given single treatment previous to June 1, . . 10 Number of animals in these herds released after completed treat- ment, . 305 Number of animals in same herds which died after single treat- ment (29.2 per cent.), 89 Number of herds in which double treatment has been used since June 1, 18 Number of animals in these herds which received double treat- ment, 591 Number of animals which died following double treatment (2 per cent.), ' . 12 Number of herds in which single treatment has been used since June 1, 31 Number of animals in these herds which received single treatment, 428 Number of animals which died following single treatment (9.5 per cent.), 41 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 Number of animals saved by single and double treatment, in which treatment has been completed, 1,264 Number of infected herds still .under treatment, December 1, . 5 Number of animals in these herds, approximate, .... 4,000 Number of animals given double treatment, . . . . . 3,000 Number of animals given single treatment, ..... 1,000 Number of noninfected herds, ........ 2 Number of animals in these herds, . . . . ... 104 Number of single treatments, Number of deaths following double treatment, From the department's study of treatment of hogs infected with or exposed to hog cholera, and acting under the advice of agents of the department who had made the study of this disease a specialty, together with the advice of national and other State live-stock sanitary authorities, I recommended the adoption of an order prohibiting the sale, distribution and use of virulent blood from hog-cholera-infected hogs, or "virus," and anti-hog-cholera serum, in this State, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. Before taking this step I had carefully considered the possibility of unduly in- terfering with the practice of regularly registered veterinarians. Since coming to the department, I have strenuously avoided any interference on the part of that department with the indi- vidual right or practice of such regularly registered veterinari- ans; and in urging the passage of the following order, I felt that the department could, through the operations of its spe- cialists, who were qualified by special training to administer the remedies therein referred to, contribute not only to the ultimate success of the department and benefit to the individual farmer, but could eventually, through the educational work done by our specialists in this line, cause owners of hogs, as well as veterina- rians, to become more familiar than they are at present with the possibilities of their use, to the end that eventually this method of treatment might be more generally adopted under the approval of both owners and professional men alike. It has been my custom to instruct our specialists to invite observation of their operations, on the part of local veter- inarians and owners who would take proper sanitary precau- tions to v prevent spread of infection, to the end that all inter- 28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. ested might become more familiar with the general subject and the possibilities of success through the intelligent use of the materials referred to in the following order : — Order No. 12. The Commonwealth op Massachusetts, Department op Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Oct. 28, 1914. To All Persons whom it may concern: — ■ Whereas the disease known as hog cholera, which is a contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, prevails ex- tensively among swine in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become necessary to adopt measures foi the prevention of the spread of said con- tagious disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912, and all acts in amendment thereof and addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation: — No person, firm or corporation shall distribute, sell or use in the Com- monwealth of Massachusetts virulent blood from hog-cholera-infected hogs, or "virus," or anti-hog-cholera serum, unless written permission has been obtained from the Commissioner of. Animal Industry for such distribution, sale or use, which written permission will be granted persons deemed proper by the Commissioner of Arimal Industry. This order shall take effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, and by distribution to known breeders of swine, to commercial houses known to be dealing in the aforesaid com- modity, and to veterinarians registered under the laws of the Common- wealth. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Nov. 11, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. The regular routine work of the department was suddenly interrupted early in November. (November 5, to be exact), when a telegram was received at department headquarters from Dr. Henry E. Paige of Amherst, announcing a probable case of foot-and-mouth disease in that town. The rapidity with which this disease spreads, its dangerous nature, a menace to beast 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 and man, and the possible loss of valuable income-producing property demanded instant attention and quick action. Be- lieving that the department met the crisis promptly and effec- tively, I deem it wise to place before your honorable body a chronological story of the department's action, such action being based on and in harmony with the code established by the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. My attention was first attracted by a newspaper paragraph to the effect that foot-and-mouth disease bad been discovered in Niles, Mich., on October 15, and I was especially inter- ested because of the added statement that the disease had been prevalent in Michigan and northern Indiana since early in August. Prior to November 5, when I was notified of the probable presence of the disease in this State, I had ordered our agents to exercise extra care in ante-mortem examinations, especially in cattle coming from western areas. We had received no word from the United States Bureau of Animal Industry at the time of these early precautions, although that Bureau super- vises all interstate shipments of cattle, and is considered to be especially active in guarding the several States along the line of shipment from live stock from infected areas. Hearing nothing in the way of warning from this official source, I nat- urally assumed that the disease was well in hand in the West, and that the probability of its reaching Massachusetts was more or less remote. On October 21 Dr. William T. White, agent of this depart- ment, who had been attending, as a delegate, a meeting of the Eastern Live Stock Sanitary Association at Albany, N. Y., telegraphed me that Dr. Wills, chief veterinarian of New York, had referred to the existence of the disease in the Buffalo stockyards. I at once told Dr. James F. llyder, in charge of the Boston station of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, what I had heard, and asked him if he had cognizance of the disease being as far east as Buffalo. His reply was in the nega- tive. I requested him to have the federal department notified, and that all ears bringing cattle to Massachusetts be disinfected before shipment. A few days later I asked again if he had heard of any cases in Buffalo, and again he answered he had not. 30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. As a matter of precaution I established the most systematic and rigorous ante-mortem examinations of all cattle arriving from western points. The federal authorities co-operated with this department under Dr. Ryder's supervision, subjecting the stock to a double inspection. No evidence of disease was found in any shipment, and it was like lightning out of a clear sky when I received notice from Dr. Henry E. Paige, on No- vember 5, of a probable case in Amherst, Mass. With Dr. Ryder I visited this herd November 6, and he confirmed the diagnosis made earlier by our Dr. Henry E. Paige and Prof. James B. Paige. We found the premises thoroughly policed and a substantial and strict quarantine was established. On the afternoon of November 5 I heard of a case at Men- don, Mass., and Agent F. C. Field was sent out to investigate. His report, made at 6 p.m., confirmed the diagnosis, and the infected herd was quarantined, as well as three adjacent herds using the same brook for water supply. On my return from Amherst, November 6, active operations, including the closing of the Brighton stockyards, were begun, to prevent the spread of the disease. Agents of the department were equipped with rubber outfits, and sent to different parts of the State to make careful examination of cattle that were known to have gone from the Brighton stockyards during the previous fortnight. On the receipt of notice of the first evidence of the disease in the State, I had secured from the leading dealers at the Brighton stockyards a list of their sales for two weeks prior to the closing of the yards, and through the information so obtained we were speedily enabled to locate practically every animal that had been distributed from that point. Realizing that the situation was decidedly grave, and that the pending embargo would involve the interests of many in- dustries within the State, I called in consultation twenty-five leading farmers, representatives of slaughtering establishments, and veterinarians, for the purpose of acquainting them with my proposed plan of campaign, and benefiting from their ad- vice. They met me at the State House November 7, and on the same day His Excellency the Governor called a special session of the Council to act on two orders recommended by me, which placed in absolute and unqualified quarantine every 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 farm in the State, and prohibited the movement of any live stock from one building to another, if such movement was to be over any highway or byway, and also prohibited the removal of any material from infected premises. So successful was the working of this quarantine that less than ten of the cases that have developed in Massachusetts trace their origin to any point other than the Brighton stockyards. The orders above referred to follow : — Order No. 13. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department op Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Nov. 7, 1914. To All Persons whom it may concern: — • Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Common- wealth, exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said contagious disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and additions: thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — No hay, straw, forage, grain, utensils or other material shall be removed from premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease exists and for such period thereafter as in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry the public safety so demands, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. This order shall take effect upon i + s approval. This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, to registered veterinarians within the Commonwealth, and by general distribution. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Nov. 7, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Order No. 14. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Animal [ndustry, State HOUSE, Boston-, Nov. 7, 1911. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a con- tagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this ( lommonwealth, 32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. exists among animals in this Commonwealth, 'and whereas it has become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said con- tagious disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provision of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and additions thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — No neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants or swine are to be shipped or transported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or to be driven on any public highway or byway within the Commonwealth, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. All dogs or cats on quarantined premises must be securely restrained during the period of quarantine. This order shall cake effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, to registered veterinarians within the Commonwealth, and by general distribution. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council Nov. 7, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. On November 8 I went to Washington and consulted with Dr. A. D. Melvin of the federal bureau in order to perfect a plan of co-operation with the national government. During the conference the following day I was informed that the disease had spread to fourteen States. I was told by Dr. Melvin that the United States Department of Agriculture proposed to sub- mit to the governments of infected States a plan of compensa- tion under which one-half of the expense incident to control of the disease should be paid by the United States government, and one-half by the State. Dr. Melvin also furnished me the form used by his department to indicate the value of cattle appraised, with the suggestion that it be adopted in Massa- chusetts, which was later done. It was further agreed that the United States government and the State should each be repre- sented by an appraiser, each to pay its representative. The advice of Dr. Melvin, the one man who has doubtless had greater experience along this line than any other in the country, was cheerfully given, and was most helpful. 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 On November 11, in order to more thoroughly restrict the spread of this disease, the following order was recommended and approved: — Order No. 15. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department op Animal Industry, State House, Boston, Nov. 11, 1914. To All Persons whom it may concern: — ■ Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a con- tagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said con- tagious disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — 1. No poultry, pigeons or other farm birds are to be shipped or trans- ported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or moved in any manner upon the public highways or byways within this Commonwealth, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 2. The above referred to live stock is not to be conveyed by any trans- portation company from States under federal quarantine. This order shall take effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, and by general distiibution. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Nov. 11, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Execu live Secretary . The work of appraisal began November 13 with, the herd of L. H. Taylor of North Amherst, and has gone forward most satisfactorily as occasion required. The United States govern- ment was represented by Otis IT. Forbush of Acton, and the State by Myron T. Carrigan of Concord, acknowledged experts as to the value of neat stock. The necessary slaughtering has been done under the direction of the department, and not a complaint has been filed at the office by owners of stock thus disposed of or agents of humane societies. The total appraisal of live stock killed up to and including November 30 is 34 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. $68,566.25, representing 891 cattle, 276 swine, 1,694 fowl, 2 sheep and 1 goat. The relations between the Federal and State forces have been most harmonious, and, in so far as it was possible, the two organizations have worked as one. As evidence of the cordial relations existing between the nation and the State in this work, the following portion of a letter has a place here. Dr. J. R. Mohler, acting chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington, in a letter addressed to the Commis- sioner of Animal Industry dated November 6, writes as fol- lows : — The Bureau is glad that it has you to look after the work in Massa- chusetts, as your training and judgment are considered a valuable asset for success through efficient co-operation. At the date of this report the disease is well in hand, and there is no doubt of its early eradication. The action of the State department was prompt and effective. Two days before notice from the United States department was received, and one day before the quarantine was established in the Chicago stockyards, the State of Massachusetts was under the strongest kind of quarantine restrictions. The work of eradication is being pushed with vigor. Each owner of appraised cattle has given a written acceptance of the appraised value of the stock killed in the form prescribed by the United States department, and owners will doubtless submit their several claims to the consideration of your honorable body during the session; and I recommend that your honorable body, in accordance with a plan submitted by the United States Bureau of Animal Indus- try and approved by the honorable Executive Council of this Commonwealth, make an appropriation sufficient to reimburse owners of cattle and property destroyed on account of foot- and-mouth disease, to the extent of 50 per cent, of the ap- praised value of the same. Statistics in connection with the control and eradication of this disease, up to and including Nov. 30, 1914, are given below. They show the towns, in alphabetical order, in which the disease has been found, the number of herds in those 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 35 towns, the number of animals and fowl appraised, the amount of appraisal, the date on which positive cases of the disease were reported by agents of the department and the date of killing. Statistics on Foot-and-mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 30, 1914- Town. Date reported positive. Date of Killing. Cattle. Swine. Fowl. Sheep. Goats. Appraisal. Amherst, Nov. 5 Nov. 14 19 6 89 - - $1,895 00 Amherst, Nov. 5 Nov. 13 8 - 35 - - 621 50 Ashland, . Nov. 13 Nov. 27 26 - - - - 1,790 00 Attleboro, Nov. 6 Nov. 18 21 2 107 ' - - 1,550 00 Auburn, . Nov. 12 Nov. 25 22 2 - - 1,600 00 Bellingham, Nov. 10 Nov. 18 17 - 70 - - 1,120 00 Bellingham, Nov. 10 Nov. 17 8 3 100 - - 715 00 Belmont, Nov. 8 Nov. 19 8 - 4 - - 402 00 Boston, Nov. 12 Nov. 20 43 - - - - 3,300 00 Brockton, Nov. 12 Nov. -27 6 - 53 - - 516 25 Chicopee, Nov. 10 Nov. 16 2 - 60 - - 226 00 Danvers, . Nov. 13 Nov. 28 8 - 33 - - 495 00 Dracut, . Nov. 13 Nov. 26 87 130 34 - - 8,364 00 Grafton, . Nov. 16 Nov. 23 12 8 36 - - 820 00 Grafton, . Nov. 10 Nov. 22 18 - 70 - - 1,300 00 Granby, . Nov. 8 Nov. 16 39 - 175 - - 3,157 50 Granby, . Nov. 17 Dec. 3 26 - 50 - 1,890 00 Hingham, Nov. 14 Nov. 30 142 6 11 - - 10,361 00 Hingham, Nov. 18 Nov. 30 9 16 - - - 691 00 Lynn, Nov. 14 Nov. 28 16 2 - - 921 00 Maynard, Nov. 14 Nov. 27 11 - 50 - - 650 00 Medford, . Nov. 20 Dec. 2 28 5 30 - - 1,535 00 Mendon, . Nov. 5 Nov. 17 9 2 - - - 585 00 Mendon, . Nov. 18 Nov. 28 13 - - - - 1,000 00 North Attleborough, Nov. 21 Dec. 3 6 2 - - - 325 00 Shrewsbury, Nov. 22 Nov. 25 10 3 - - - 705 0(1 Stoneham, Nov. 19 Dec. 1 10 - 28 - - (II.-) Ill) Sudbury, Nov. 30 Dec. 5 20 5 38 - - L.22B (») Swansea, . Nov. 17 /Nov. 22 I Nov. 23 1 56 - - - - ■1,750 00 Swansea, . Nov. 11 Nov. 25 24 44 250 - - 2,200 00 Swansea, . Nov. 17 Nov. 23 21 - 125 - - 1, '.)()() 00 Watertown, Nov. 21 Dec. 3 6 - 30 - - 525 00 36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan . Statistics on Foot-and-mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 30, 1914 — Con. Town. Date reported positive. Date of Killing. • Cattle. Swine. Fowl. Sheep. Goats. Appraisal. West Boylston, West Boylston, Westport, Worcester, Worcester, Worcester, Nov. 14 Nov. 15 Nov. 11 Nov. 27 Nov. 11 Nov. 23 Nov. 24 Dec. 2 Nov. 23 Dec. 4 (Nov. 21 \Nov. 22 Dec. 2 6 23 16 13 } 65 17 1 31 8 2 150 64 2 1 $300 00 1,670 00 2,000 00 1,130 00 3,900 00 1,516 00 Totals, i . - - 891 276 1,694 2 1 $68,566 25 1 From November 5 to November 30, inclusive, 600 herds were inspected by agents of the department. Miscellaneous Diseases. The Department of Animal Industry is called upon during the year to deal with other diseases of a contagious nature, in addition to rabies, glanders, bovine tuberculosis, hog cholera and foot-and-mouth disease. Among them are actinomycosis, mange, symptomatic anthrax or blackleg, anthrax, Texas fever, and tuberculosis in other animals than cattle. Eleven cases of actinomycosis have been reported; 9 of these animals were slaughtered, and 2 were found not to have the disease. There has been a further decrease in the number of animals reported as suffering from mange. Twenty places where mange was supposed to exist were reported, 3 of which were found to be free from it. At the remaining 17 places 303 head of cattle and 1 horse were found to be affected. The application of a mixture of engine oil, phenol, kerosene and sulphur has apparently proved most efficacious in treating this trouble, and has been recommended, with excellent results, to owners of diseased animals. The protective inoculation of young cattle where symptomatic anthrax or blackleg has occurred has been continued where owners requested, and has been done under the direction of Dr. James B. Paige of the Amherst Agricultural College, with the assistance of his brother, Dr. Henry E. Paige, an agent of this department. Reports have been received from 85 owners, and 633 head of cattle have been inoculated. 1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 Outbreaks of anthrax have been reported at 10 farms, at 2 of which it was found upon investigation not to have occurred; at the 8 remaining farms, 46 sheep, 6 horses and 132 head of cattle were inoculated. In addition to the above diseases outbreaks have been re- ported from various sections of the State from time to time, which upon investigation have proven to be foot-rot, distemper, food poisoning, etc., diseases not recognized under the law as contagious. Financial Statement. At the close of the last fiscal year, Nov. 30, 1913, there was on hand, as per the second annual report : — Balance of appropriation for salaries and expenses for 1913, . . . Balance of appropriation for general work of the department for 1913, .... Appropriation for salaries and expenses of 1914, chapter 63, Acts of 1914, . Transferred by State Auditor from emer- gency fund, . Appropriation for general work of the depart- ment, chapter 94, Acts of 1914, . Total to be accounted for, .... Expended during the year : — For 1,050 head of cattle condemned and killed during the -years 1913 and 1914, paid for in 1914, $33,404 30 For killing and burial, quarantine claims and arbitration expenses, 1,046 19 $34,450 49 $90 94 35,946 37 $36,037 31 $11,000 00 200 18 160,000 00 171,200 18 .$207,237 49 For services of agents (exclusive of glanders work), accounts of 1913 and 1914, . . $26,373 88 For expenses of agents (exclusive of glanders work), accounts of 1913 and 1914, . . 13,350 56 For expenses of quarantine stations, . . 6,654 83 For expenses of glanders work, including services and expenses of agents, laboratory work and killing and burial, .... 47,2(53 60 l 1 Of this amount, $36,936.50 has been paid for 696 horses condemned i<>r glanders during tho year. 38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. For laboratory expenses (exclusive of glanders work), . . For implements, ear tags, thermometers, etc., For salary of the head of the department, For salary of clerk, For salaries of assistant clerks and- stenog- raphers, For printing, postage, stationery, etc., For expenses of the head of the department, Total expenditures, .... Balance from all accounts, Nov. 30, 1914, Total as above, This balance is made up from the following items : — Balance of appropriation for salaries and expenses, 1913, . $90 94 Balance of appropriation for general work of the depart- ment, 1913, 35,946 37 Balance of appropriation for general .work of the depart- ment, available for unsettled accounts of 1914, . . 23,875 19 RY. [Jan. 1915. $3,509 94 4,415 91 3,500 00 1,279 84 3,125 84 2,919 20 480 84 $112,874 50 $147,324 99 59,912 50 $207,237 49 $59,912 50 The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year was $31.81. There has been received during the year from the sale of hides and carcasses of condemned animals, sale of ear tags, testing cattle for nonresident owners, etc., $7,738.37. Claims for 141 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber- culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to $4,450.70. Claims for 105 horses condemned and killed during the year because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law will amount to $5,041.50. Respectfully submitted, FRED FREELAND WALKER, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Public Document No. 98 FOUKTH ANNUAL EEPOET OF THE Commissioner of Animal Industby. 1915. For the Year ending November 30, 1915. BOSTON: WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 32 DERNE STREET. 1916. aiaoNWt. Approved by The State Board, of Publication. ©t)£ ^ommontDmltl) of Jttct00acl)n0£tt0, Department of An:mal Industry, Boston, Dec. 1, 1915. To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: — ■ In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, Acts of 1912, which act is entitled "An Act to abolish the Cattle Bureau of the State Board of Agriculture, and to create a Department of Animal Industry," I have the honor to present to the General Court the fourth annual report of the work accomplished by this department for the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1915. The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the duty of inspection and examination of animals, the quarantine and killing of animals affected with, or which have been ex- posed to, contagious disease, the burial or other disposal of their carcasses, and the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or places where such contagion exists or has existed. Proper attention to these duties requires constant activity on the part of a large number of persons who by proper education and training are specially fitted for this work. The control and eradication of contagious diseases' among live stock is an important economic factor in the prosperity of the Commonwealth. The basis of prosperity of the people of any country is its agriculture. Successful agriculture cannot be accomplished unless the live-stock interests are conserved in the highest degree. Conservation of live stock is dependent largely upon the prevention of disease, and therefore the functions of the Department of Animal Industry must be con- sidered as intimately related to the prosperity of the whole people. The year just brought to a close has been one in which this department has been called upon for a full exercise of its duties. Foot-and-mouth disease, a serious affection among cattle, sheep and swine, has prevailed in many portions of the State and country, and for a time, on account of its widespread distribu- tion, threatened to be fastened upon our live stock as a perma- nent plague. Owing, however, to early recognition of the 4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. threatened danger, and the prompt measures which were taken to avert it, we are now able to say that the prevalence of this great plague within our borders has been proven to be tempo- rary only. Foot-and-mouth disease does not now exist in the State of Massachusetts, and has been eradicated from all portions of the country except a small part of the State of Illinois; and, in accordance with the history of former out- breaks of this disease, and also on account of the constant care and watchfulness of all owners, veterinarians and live-stock officials, a recurrence of it in the near future should not be apprehended. The department has been actively engaged in the control and eradication of tuberculosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, anthrax and anthracoid diseases among bovine animals, glanders affect- ing horses, mules and asses, rabies affecting dogs and other animals, hog cholera among swine, and scabies affecting sheep. Prompt investigation and effective executive work as circum- stances required have limited, controlled or eradicated these diseases in a satisfactory degree. The activities of the depart- ment must be continued, however, and increased in every direction if the value of its work as a factor in the prosperity and well-being of the people of the Commonwealth is to be maintained. Preventable disease of live stock plays a large part in keeping up the high cost of living by limiting the food supply. If tuberculosis among cattle and cholera among swine (taking these diseases as examples) were entirely stamped out, all the carcasses now being destroyed would be added to the food supply, together with many others whose production the saving of these would make possible. The eradication of preventable animal diseases would not only add perceptibly to the food supply, but would probably save many human lives. Beyond all question progress can be steadily made in this direction, and the supply of wholesome food products in this country thereby increased, if proper means for safeguarding and husbanding our resources are organized. Tuberculosis is the chief cause of the condemnation of food animals in the country, and hog cholera is responsible for the next largest loss. The Department of Animal Industry is 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 actively engaged in the elimination of tuberculous animals, within the limitations prescribed by law, and the prevention of hog cholera among swine is fast becoming one of the most important branches of its work. Next to the control and eradication of preventable disease, the breeding and development of pure-blooded or "seed" animals, and their maintenance at a high standard of health and productivity, are very great factors in the conservation and increase of the live-stock interests of the Commonwealth, and are now receiving marked attention from all people interested in the progressive development of our agricultural resources. A spirit of co-operation has been shown in nearly all instances by the live-stock owners with whom the department by its agents has had to come into intimate relation during the prosecution of its work. During the prevalence of foot-and- mouth disease it was necessary, as a measure for the control and eradication of that plague, to impose and enforce quaran- tine restrictions which in many instances caused great in- convenience and severe monetary loss to cattle owners and other citizens. These restrictions were very irksome, and by an unthinking person might be deemed unreasonable, but a remarkable spirit of reliance upon the authorities charged with the duty of suppression of this disease has been shown, and the public as a whole has been very willing to comply with all regulations imposed when once becoming fully informed as to their necessity. Rabies. Below is a full report of the work of this department in the control and eradication of rabies. Rabies is essentially a disease of dogs, although all species of warm-blooded animals are susceptible, and cases have been reported in every species of domestic animals, in a large number of wild animals and in man. The disease causes a certain amount of monetary loss every year among horses, cattle, slice]) and hogs. However, in the control of this disease we ordinarily need to consider but one source of its spread, — the dog, and a certain portion of the canine inhabitants requires the most specific consideration, namely, the homeless, ownerless dog. Because of the liability of rabies to become rapidly spread, no 6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. community in which it exists can afford to relax for a moment such measures as it finds itself able to adopt for its control. The control of rabies is essentially the control of rabid dogs. This fact alone renders the control and eradication of this disease relatively simple compared with that of most other infectious diseases of animals, for the reason that dogs enter less into commerce than horses or the food-producing animals, and their market value is on the average much less. Further- more, they endure restraint well, and can be kept in con- finement at a relatively low expense as compared with the larger animals. We find that the ownerless, homeless dog is more often the spreader of this disease than is the animal which has a home and proper care and attention. The tramp animal may become affected with rabies and act as a spreader of the infection before he is observed to be diseased, and even then it often happens that, on account of no one being specially interested in his welfare, attention of the proper official is not directed to him. Were the laws requiring all dogs to be licensed strictly enforced this class of animals would not exist long, and thereby a very great factor in the dissemination of this disease would be eliminated. Recent investigations have been pursued in the search of a means of eradication of rabies by the immunizing of dogs against the disease. It is too early to say whether or not this is practicable or even possible, but should further investigation substantiate some of the promises of preliminary work, it would bring to our aid additional means of control which might be valuable. Although no unusual prevalence of rabies has existed during the year just closed, its control is at all times a very important matter from the standpoint of the public health. No doubt very much more might be accomplished in this direction, as well as in the control of other contagious diseases of animals, if the laws of the different States relating thereto were uniform, so that combined effort in the same line of action might be undertaken simultaneously by the different States. It very often happens that in the pursuit of a case of rabies the trail leads across the line into another State, and the jurisdiction of 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 our own State officials ceases at what is, perhaps, a critical point in control and eradication of this disease. Following is a general outline of the department's methods in this work under the present regulations : — Upon report being made to the Department of Animal Industry that a person has been bitten by a dog, the inspector of animals of the town or city in which it occurs is ordered to make an examination of the animal, and, if it appears to be healthy, to have it restrained for a period of ten days for the purpose of observation, at the end of which period, if no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may be re- leased. In case a person is bitten by a dog which upon exami- nation by the inspector of animals, or any other person, shows evidence of being affected with rabies, this animal is immediately placed in quarantine. If it is subsequently killed or dies in quarantine its head is immediately sent to the de- partment's office and a laboratory examination of the brain is made. Information as to the laboratory diagnosis is promptly communicated to the person or persons who have been bitten. The State Department of Health is given the information received in every case of dog bite, whether the bite has been inflicted by an animal suspected of rabies or not. The Depart- ment of Animal Industry also orders the local inspector of animals to ascertain not only the names of all persons who have been bitten by dogs suspected of rabies, but also to find out if other dogs have been bitten, and if so to place the same in quarantine, and they are held in quarantine for a period of at least ninety days. All dogs which are known to have been in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it appears that they have been bitten by it, are also placed in quarantine for the same period. If any unusual number of cases of rabies is found in any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or boards of aldermen are asked or advised to issue a restraining order, under the pro- visions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- from only on leash. This restraining order is much more effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. which compels owners to only muzzle the animals but not restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way get the muzzle off and then bite other animals or people. A muzzled dog at large, therefore, may become much more dangerous than an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon owner's premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs found running at large while a restraining order issued by town or city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance of a warrant for the same to a police officer. In thirteen cities and towns of the Commonwealth general restraining orders have been issued for periods varying from thirty to ninety days. The periods covered by all these orders have now expired. The Department of Animal Industry has a force of district agents located in different parts of the State, at all times in the service and pay of the Commonwealth. These agents, most of whom are veterinarians, together with the local inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in every city and town of the State, completes an organization by which systematic local control of an outbreak of this disease can generally be accomplished within a reasonably short time. The department is assisted at every point by the earnest co-operation on the part of private veterinarians, and by the various societies now so active in preventing abuse and relieving suffering of dumb animals. The following table shows the number of animals which have been under observation by the department on account of the prevalence of rabies during the year ending Nov. 30, 1915: — 73 O Q © o 03 o © 03 U o w 6 a a> m CO 'eS -p O Eh Killed or died with rabies (furious, 162; dumb, 52), Killed or died with suspicious symptoms of rabies, but not positive cases. Killed by owners or died in quarantine, not proven rabid, but exposed to the disease. Killed or died with no suspicious symptoms, not, how- ever, declared negative. Still in quarantine (ten days, 1; ninety days, 67), . Not located or escaped quarantine (suspicious of rabies, 4; not suspicious of rabies, 9). 214 27 46 80 325 68 13 4 1 2 1 3 1 5 1 4 1 1 1 9 2 5 226 27 51 81 344 71 14 814 1916.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 98. 9 The brains of 120 dogs, 2 cows, 1 horse and 3 cats were examined at the laboratory of the Harvard Medical School during the year, and the results were as follows : — Dogs. Cattle. Horses Cats Positive, Negative, 84 36 The brains of 5 dogs and 1 horse were received too de- composed to be examined. During the year 139 persons have been bitten by rabid animals, and in each case the State Department of Health has been notified. Out of the positive cases of rabies occurring during 1915, 42 animals were ownerless, or the owners were unknown. For purposes of comparison the following figures are given showing the number of positive cases of rabies occurring each year for the past eleven years : — 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 98 293 662 454 126 51 121 90 205 250 226 Glanders. For many years the prevalence of glanders among the horses of the Commonwealth has been widespread. In no year during the last seventeen have there been less than 400 cases recorded, and in the year 1913 there were 1,084 horses killed on account of being affected with this disease. The average yearly record of the past seventeen years being 748 cases, the monetary loss to citizens, based on a low valuation of $100 per animal, approximates the amount of $75,000 yearly. The control and eradication of this disease is therefore an economic question of no small importance. The problems connected with its suppres- sion are many and difficult of solution, and necessarily the 10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. subject of continual careful consideration on the part of the head of the department. From our experience during the past year it is reasonable to assume that intelligent, systematic effort constantly made by trained men will effect still greater reduction in the number of cases. The records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915, show that during that year there has been a smaller number of cases of this disease than at any time since the year 1898. Following is a table giving the number of cases of this disease by separate years for the entire period mentioned. In this table the cases existing in the city of Boston are shown separately. Boston always having been the storm center of this disease, special tabulation of the number of cases in that city is made in order that its relative importance to other sections of the State may be studied. Number of Cases. Yeah* Cases. In Boston. In Other Places. Totals. 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 137 159 192 197 155 250 254 210 194 308 389 278 314 387 395 556 355 152 250 384 507 548 580 610 555 414 376 403 552 406 362 565 446 528 495 250 387 543 699 745 735 860 809 624 570 711 941 684 676 952 841 1,084 850 402 As shown by the above table, there has been during the year just closed a decrease of 57 per cent, from the previous year in the number of cases found in the city of Boston, and the 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 decrease in the number of cases in other portions of the State has been 49.4 per cent. Taken together, the decrease for the whole State has been 52.7 per cent. From the showing of the figures for the past year it would seem as if it could reasonably be expected that this disease might in time be entirely eradicated, or at least so controlled that its existence would not be of such serious moment as formerly, and that by prompt destruction of animals showing clinical symptoms of the disease, followed by diagnostic exami- nation of all animals associated with them in conditions of work or stabling, still further reduction in the number of cases must be possible. A very important factor in the success of our method of control has been the prompt killing of animals showing clinical symptoms. This has been promptly followed by disinfection of premises where they were stabled, of the blacksmith shops where they were shod, and of the watering troughs where they had been in the habit of drinking. To effectively aid in the complete disinfection of premises from which diseased animals have been removed owners have been requested to tear out mangers, loose boarding and such portions of the stalls as the animals have come in close contact with, or upon which may have been deposited any discharges from their respiratory passages. We have required that this disinfection be properly accomplished by the owners of premises before approving the claims for reimbursement presented by the owners of the animals. Frequent inspection of the animals on premises where glanders has prevailed has been made, so that the spread of the infection from the original case might be noted in its early stages, and prompt action taken to destroy any new center of infection found. This inspection has been repeated from time to time with the result that many cases have been found and destroyed which otherwise might have escaped notice. All animals suspected of being diseased, but which did not show clinical symptoms sufficiently well marked to be con- demned as positive cases, have been subjected to one or more of the tests which are now available for purposes of diag- nosis. One of these tests is the complement-fixation, or so-called 12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. "blood test," made by laboratory experts, and another is the ophthalmic-mallein, or so-called "eye test," made by agents of this department. Either one or both of these tests are applied in doubtful cases, and are of great value for diagnostic purposes. By their use early diagnoses of doubtful cases are possible in many instances, the result being that many animals are de- stroyed much earlier in the progress of the disease than would have happened if the diagnoses had depended upon the ex- hibition of clinical symptoms alone. It has been proven by postmortem examination that both of these tests are accurate in a high percentage of cases. The ophthalmic test is made by applying a small portion of a reliable concentrated mallein within the lower lid of the eye, and noting the result at about the sixteenth hour afterwards. This test has the advantage of not interfering in any way with a blood test which it may be thought desirable to apply later. Complement-fixation Test. Of 50 horses from which samples of blood had been obtained during the years 1913 and 1914, 2 died, 3 have been condemned, 5 released and 3 held for further observation. Fifty-four samples of blood were taken from the remaining 37 horses, of which number 31 horses were released, 3 condemned and 3 were burned to death. Six hundred and seventy samples of blood were taken from 562 horses reported during the year, with the following results : — Animals released on first test, Released on second test," . Released on third test, Released on fourth test, . Killed by owner after first test, Died after first test, . Died after second test, Condemned on first test, . Condemned on second test, Condemned on third test, Condemned on fourth test, Held for further observation, 317 46 6 3 3 11 2 141 20 3 2 8 562 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 From 3 of the 8 horses still held one sample of blood has been obtained; from 3 others two bloods have been obtained, and from the remaining 2 horses three bloods have been taken. Ophthalmic-mallein Tests. Number of tests made during the year, 340 Tests giving positive results, . ... . . . . . 150 Tests giving negative results, 147 Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 43 340 Animals which for any reason have been suspected of being diseased either as a result of contact with other diseased animals or as a result of the different tests, but which have not shown sufficient clinical symptoms to warrant condemnation, have been quarantined, frequently examined, and in many instances allowed to work under certain conditions. We have found that in many instances contact animals which are apparently in a condition of perfect health have temporarily reacted to one of the tests mentioned, and at a later date have ceased to react to the same. It has, therefore, not been thought justifiable to kill valuable animals which having reacted to these tests did not also show clinical symptoms, if the animals appeared to be in a condition of health otherwise. These so- called temporary reactors have, however, been carefully watched, frequent tests have been applied, and in case they reacted persistently to either one or both of the tests, de- struction of them has been advised. Autopsy has been made of condemned animals in every case where there has been any inconsistency in the results of the different tests, and in all other cases where practicable. The use of subcutaneous mallein for the testing of suspected animals is not advised by the department, for the reason that it may interfere with the correctness of any blood test subse- quently made. Another factor in the control of glanders has been the closing or elimination of public watering troughs. On the outbreak of glanders in a town or city, if the number of cases was unusual, all public watering troughs in the vicinity have been ordered 14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. closed. In every instance where this has been done it has been immediately followed by a decrease in the number of cases. At the present time public watering troughs are closed in twelve cities and towns of the Commonwealth, the additional places in which troughs were closed during the past year being Chicopee, Holyoke, Marlborough and Hudson. The closing of the public drinking places for animals in different cities and towns in my opinion limits the spread of contagious diseases other than glanders, and the practice of drivers and teamsters carrying pails from which to water animals is one to be encouraged, not only from the standpoint of control of glanders, but also of many other diseases of a contagious character. It has been found that in many instances teamsters have been very much impressed by the result of this practice, and would not desire to go back to the old practice of watering at the public troughs, even if the same were again opened. Another factor in the control of glanders has been the activity of the different humane societies engaged in the work of taking old and decrepit animals from the streets and humanely disposing of them. The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association and the Animal Rescue League have by their agents been of material aid to this department in the effort to control this disease. Their particular observation of working animals of all classes has brought to light many showing suspicious symptoms. These have been promptly reported to the department, and in many cases found to be diseased. Over- worked or disabled animals are predisposed to infection, and by removal of the same undoubtedly many cases of this disease have been prevented. Another factor in the suppression of glanders has been the disinfection of blacksmith shops. Following the condemnation of an animal affected with this disease a visit is made by one of the agents of the department to the blacksmith shop in which this particular animal had been shod. Constant inspection of such premises by our agents has undoubtedly been a factor in securing weekly disinfection by their owners or occupants, and in all probability this practice has limited the prevalence of this disease to a large degree. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 In the city of Boston 56 blacksmith shops where animals condemned on account of glanders were shod have been visited by our agents during the year, and instructions given relative to disinfection. Of this number, 51 shops have been put in a condition satisfactory to the department. The statistics of the general work of the department in connection with the control and eradication of glanders follow : — Cases of horses and mules reported as suspicious, . . . 838 Cases held over from previous years, 75 Animals killed or died, found affected with glanders, . Animals killed, no lesions found, full value paid by State, Animals killed by owners or died before diagnosis, Animals released as free from -glanders, .... Cases held for further observation, . . . ...-.' 402 2 33 458 18 913 913 Of the 402 positive cases of glanders, 152 cases were located in Boston. Three hundred and eighty-nine horses condemned and killed on account of glanders and farcy during the past four years have been paid for during 1915, the total payments amounting to $19,600. Interstate Horses. The department order which prohibits the importation of horses, asses and mules from the States of New York, Connecti- cut and Rhode Island, except upon permit, is still in force. The number of horses shipped from these States under permit has been very much less during the past year than in the previous year, due in part to the restrictions on live-stock ship- ments imposed on account of foot-and-mouth disease, and among the animals so shipped glanders has been very much less prevalent, only one horse having been condemned as affected with this disease. The statistics in connection with this branch of the service follow : — Animals brought into State. Mules, ....'. 18 Donkeys, 7 Horses, 3,654 3,679 16 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Disposition of Above Animals. Died soon after arrival, Condemned as affected with glanders, . Tested by agents of the department and released, Released on physical examination, ... 1 1 20 3,657 3,679 Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- panies to report to this department cases of glanders or farcy found by them, and the information thus furnished is of con- siderable value in bringing to the attention of the department cases of the disease which otherwise would not be known. A table of reports of rendering companies follows : — Reports of Rendering Companies. Rendering Companies. Number of Reports. Number of Cases. Number not previously reported. W. H. Abbott, Holyoke 19 38 1 C. S. Bard, Haverhill, 1 1 - 4 5 - » Home Soap Company, Millbury, 12 18 - 2 2 - Lowell Rendering Company, Lowell, 1 1 - A. G. Markham & Co., Springfield, 2 2 - James E. McGovern, Andover, 1 1 - 24 44 - William H. Nankervis, Marlborough, 10 18 2 New Bedford Extractor Company, . 9 11 - New England Rendering Company, Brighton, 14 20 3 Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, Peabody 5 7 - N. Roy, Jr., Fall River 21 29 3 Sherborn Rendering Company 3 3 - Springfield Rendering Company, Springfield, 2 2 - N. Ward Company, South Boston, .... 48 136 1 Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company, ■ Nortt Chelmsford. S. Winter Company, Brockton, L 1 9 1 11 - Worcester Rendering Company, 1 1 1 189 351 11 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. Owing to its extremely infectious nature, foot-and-mouth disease when once started in a community spreads with great rapidity. Investigation as to the means by which this disease was spread during the recent outbreak in this Commonwealth disclosed the fact that in many instances herds were infected by germs carried by persons. There are many cases on record where the infection was taken from one farm to another by cattle owners or some members of their household who, from curiosity or for other reasons, visited infected premises, or where persons from infected premises visited other premises where animals were confined. If this disease was allowed to spread promiscuously over the country, it is natural to assume that the majority or practically all the animals in the country would become affected, and, although the death rate is not large, animals attacked by the disease are injured to a greater or less extent, and as the disease continues to spread, strains of virus passing through successive herds sometimes result in a much more virulent form of the disease, and the death rate may reach as high as 40 or 50 per cent, of animals attacked. Therefore, if it should become generally prevalent, the loss sustained would aggregate an immense sum. On account of permanent immunity not being conferred upon animals attacked by this disease, and the fact that such animals having recovered from one attack may again be attacked during future outbreaks, or may even reinfect them- selves by means of germs carried upon their own bodies, it is necessary to adopt such methods as will insure complete eradication. A superficial study of this question should convince the most skeptical of the necessity of eradicating the disease before it becomes established at the point where eradication is im- possible, and the method destined to secure that result is quarantine, with slaughter of infected or exposed animals. This has been the method pursued not only in the State of Massachusetts, but in every other State where the disease has appeared, and is the one which has been used in all countries which have accomplished complete eradication. 18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. The method of "quarantine followed by slaughter of infected or exposed animals" is the one which has been pursued in all previous outbreaks in this State and country, and the success which that method has attained heretofore was undoubtedly the chief reason for the pursuance of the same method by national and State governments during the recent outbreak. Although one large herd of cattle in Chicago was saved from slaughter on account of conditions making possible such methods of quarantine as would prevent spread of the disease, such conditions would be absolutely impossible on an average farm, and far too costly to employ with ordinary cattle. This case offers no criterion by which the effectiveness of this method may be judged. The experience of European countries with farm quarantines is that the disease invariably spreads and gains a lasting foothold. The herd referred to, which was held in close quarantine in Chicago for a period of seven months, consisted of over 700 valuable pure-bred cattle. Con- ditions for enforcing strict quarantine were such that there was no possible chance for the disease to be carried from the premises. These conditions would be difficult to duplicate, and probably impossible to maintain, on the average farm. In the case of the herd mentioned the expense per head amounted to several times the average value of an ordinary farm animal. The beginning of the fiscal year, Dec. 1, 1914, found this department still engaged in a struggle for the control of foot- and-mouth disease. At that time the disease had appeared on 38 premises in 27 towns, and during the month of December, 12 more premises had become infected in 9 different towns. On assuming office on Jan. 2, 1915, I therefore found that since the beginning of the outbreak, namely, Nov. 6, 1914, and during the two months of its prevalence, the disease had appeared on 50 premises in 36 different towns of the Common- wealth. All of the diseased animals and those which had been exposed to the infection had been killed and buried, and disin- fection of premises, under the immediate supervision of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, was going on. Much criticism had been expressed on the part of owners of diseased cattle to the effect that the department was not, apparently, prepared to dispose of diseased animals promptly 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 after positive diagnosis of the disease had been made, as, after condemnation, killing and burial had been delayed for periods varying from three days to, in some instances, seventeen days, the average elapsed time between positive diagnosis and killing and burial being nine and one-half days. In the meantime the animals remained active centers of infection from which the disease might be spread in various ways. Therefore special effort has since been made, on the occasion of an outbreak, to kill and bury the diseased and exposed animals as promptly as possible, and to disinfect premises on which the disease existed, with the result that, in cases that have occurred since Jan. 1, 1915, the average time which has elapsed between date of positive diagnosis and date of burial of animals has been less than five days. Following two cases occurring on Jan. 1 and Jan. 4, 1915, a period of twenty-five days elapsed during which no new cases were found. On Feb. 6, 1915, there started in the city of Waltham an outbreak which involved 15 premises in the towns of Waltham, Watertown, Weston, Lexington, Arlington and Everett before it was controlled. The first premises infected in this district were those of J. W. Keenan in Waltham, and within a very few days after the outbreak of the disease at that point it was found to have spread to other premises in this district. Persons traveling from one farm to another for various purposes were found to be the means by which the disease was carried. In no instance had cattle, sheep or swine been the medium by which the disease had been transferred from one place to another. A special investigation was made (as is done in all cases) of the source of this outbreak which had appeared on the farm of said J. W. Keenan. It was found that J. W. Keenan did not live at his farm in Waltham, but resided with his nephew, Thomas Keenan, in Brighton, and went back and forth daily from the Brighton premises to his farm in Waltham, using an automobile for conveyance. Further inquiry at the premises of the nephew, Thomas Keenan in Brighton, disclosed the fact that in his opinion foot-and-mouth disease had existed on his prem- ises early in the outbreak in Massachusetts, and at which 20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. time J. W. Keenan of Waltham was living thereon. Follow- ing this line of investigation still further, it was found that animals which Thomas Keenan had on his premises in Brighton at that time were part of a herd of animals originally owned by George L. Henry of Amherst, at whose farm the first cases of foot-and-mouth disease in Massachusetts were found. The connection is, therefore, quite closely established between the original outbreak in Massachusetts and the so-called secondary outbreak in Waltham, as follows : — Mr. George L. Henry shipped cows to Brighton weekly, and what he did not sell on any particular market day he sent to the premises of Thomas Keenan in Brighton, to be kept until the following week. A portion of the animals originally ex- posed to the disease at Mr. Henry's farm, and which were shipped to the Brighton stock yards, were the identical ani- mals stabled at Thomas Keenan's premises. J. W. Keenan of Waltham boarded at this place and went daily from there to his farm in Waltham, on which the so-called secondary out- break occurred. Further investigation disclosed the fact that the disease had not been recognized by the department as existing on Thomas Keenan's premises, and therefore the animals had not been killed, and the premises had not been disinfected. Thomas Keenan says that in his opinion his animals had foot-and-mouth disease; that he reported them to the Com- missioner of Animal Industry; that two of his animals were buried by himself on his own premises, and that the other four were removed for slaughter to the Brighton Abattoir on a per- mit of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. J. W. Keenan of Waltham also used a cow-wagon kept on the Brighton premises to transport cattle to and from his farm in Waltham. A record of these facts is on file with the United States Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington, D. C, investiga- tion in this matter having been made by that department in- dependently of that of the Massachusetts department. As a result of this investigation by State and Federal de- partments it was deemed necessary to put the premises of Thomas Keenan, in Brighton, under quarantine, and disinfect 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 the same according to the regular method pursued in all such cases. We are forced to the conclusion that had the disease been recognized when on the premises of Thomas Keenan in Brigh- ton, the animals been promptly killed and buried and the prem- ises completely disinfected, and the persons thereon restrained from going to other places until they had been properly fumi- gated and their clothing disinfected, this secondary outbreak in Waltham and vicinity would have been prevented. The value of animals killed and property destroyed in this section amounted to $36,000. A secondary infection in Worcester and vicinity also took place in the early part of February, also one in Southborough and Westborough. An isolated case also occurred in the city of Springfield, two animals there being affected, and a case in Chicopee. In the towns of Russell and Northampton isolated cases occurred, these being the only ones which have occurred west of the Connecticut River during this outbreak. From one place in Worcester four calves were shipped to outside towns, and two days later foot-and-mouth disease was found on the premises from which these calves had been removed. In following up and inspecting the calves at their destination, it was found that in three instances they had carried the disease with them, although at the time of their leaving the premises where they had been raised the disease had not appeared and did not appear until two days after their departure. This incident shows that foot-and-mouth disease may be carried or transmitted and animals become infected therewith before clinical symptoms appear in the animals originally dis- eased. Early in February the disease was found at two packing houses in animals shipped thereto for immediate slaughter. These premises were accordingly immediately disinfected, and no additional cases have since appeared at those points. From March 18 no new cases were found until April 16, when the disease appeared in a mild form on a place where it had previously existed in December, 1914, and where premises were being restocked with trial animals. Although the prem- ises had been disinfected and allowed to remain unoccupied 22 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. for four months, the disease was found in a mild form in the restocking animals. These animals were promptly disposed of in the regular manner, and no further appearance of the dis- ease on those premises has resulted. During the prevalence of. foot-and-mouth disease in the Commonwealth farm-to-farm inspection has been systemati- cally carried on by inspectors of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry in co-operation with agents of this depart- ment. This inspection is considered absolutely necessary in order that any unrecognized or hidden cases may be brought to light and promptly disposed of. Many suspected cases of infection have been reported from time to time by cattle owners and other interested persons, all of which cases have been promptly investigated. Careful disinfection of the in- spectors engaged in the work of inspection has been insisted upon, t and in no instance has it been found that the disease has been spread by agents of this department or by the Federal inspectors. On October 10 the disease in typical form appeared on a farm in the town of Leicester. The animals were promptly killed and buried and the premises disinfected. It having been found that one of these cows had recently gone to a neigh- boring farm for breeding purposes, and probably after she was infected with the disease, the breeding animal at the second farm was promptly killed and buried, and those premises also were disinfected, the result being that the disease was confined to the original place where it broke out. Very thorough farm- to-farm inspection in this vicinity disclosed no additional cases, and it must therefore be classed as an isolated case, the source of which has not been positively determined. It would not be unreasonable to expect that occasionally an isolated case may yet be found, for with such an amount of infection spread broadcast throughout such a large portion of the State there is certainly some danger that it may yet exist and break out when circumstances are favorable thereto. On Nov, 7, 1914, at the beginning of the outbreak, an order of the Commissioner of Animal Industry approved in Council on the same date prohibited the movement or transportation of neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine in all portions 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 of the State. This order, supplemented by certain notices, was in force until Jan. 13, 1915, when it was modified so as to apply only to cities and towns and certain areas adjacent thereto which lay within a three-mile radius of premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease had during the previous three months been known to exist, and to such other cities and towns and areas adjacent thereto in which foot-and-mouth disease might subsequently appear. There had been in force also during this period certain orders restricting the transportation of poultry and other small domestic animals. On account of the extreme inconvenience, interference with business, and monetary loss which this general quarantine had imposed on the citizens of the Commonwealth, and also be- cause it was deemed safe to begin to modify the restrictions necessary in the first instance to the control of this disease, the modification of Jan. 13, 1915, was deemed advisable, and thereafter from time to time, as the betterment of conditions became apparent, other approved orders and regulations were issued, until on July 1 notice was issued that no permits for the movement of cattle, sheep and swine would be required except to and from premises on which foot-and-mouth disease had existed, and in the Brighton district of Boston and the city of Watertown. On February 1 notice was issued so modifying restrictions which had been applied during the quarantine as to allow live stock from Maine and Vermont to enter Massachusetts; cattle for immediate slaughter could be consigned to establishments under Federal inspection without special permit, and to other points in the State accompanied by a permit; cattle not for immediate slaughter were allowed to be shipped on permit to any point except the quarantine stations at Brighton, Water- town and Somerville. On May 10 these privileges were made applicable also to the State of New Hampshire. On May 17 the Brighton Stock Yards, which had remained closed to all kinds of traffic since early in November, 1914, were allowed to open for the receipt of neat cattle, sheep and swine if shipped in disinfected cars and intended for immediate slaughter. On July 1 this privilege was extended to the Union Stock Yards in Watertown. 24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. On August 30 the quarantine stations at Somerville, Brighton and Watertown were first opened for the receipt of dairy cattle, under condition that the shipments originate in Massa- chusetts, Maine, New Hampshire or Vermont, and be subject to all regulations which were in force prior to the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The order allowing this has been continually in force since that date up to the end of the year, with the exception of the period from Oct. 5 to Oct. 15, 1915. On October 5 a cow suspected of being affected with foot-and- mouth disease was received at the Brighton Stock Yards, and immediately all other animals on the premises were quaran- tined. For the protection of the cattle interests of the State, and in order that the infection of foot-and-mouth disease might not again be distributed to the many farms to which cattle go from this public market, it was deemed necessary to hold all the animals at that point until it could be posi- tively determined whether or not the suspected animal was a case of this disease. After a period of ten days had elapsed from the receipt of this particular cow, and experiments made in the mean time to determine whether or not the disease was present had proved negative, the special quarantine was lifted and the animals that had been held were released. Until foot-and-mouth disease disappears entirely from the country, and a period of time elapses sufficient to unmistakably prove that fact, certain precautions are necessary in order that the live-stock interests of the State shall not be jeopardized. The department accordingly at the present time requires that all cattle shipped from any State except the three New England States mentioned shall remain in quarantine for a period of at least fifteen days after arrival, so that if the infection has been picked up en route to this State clinical symptoms of it will be likely to be discovered before the animals are released and distributed to other farms. The Legislature of 1915 having appropriated $150,000 for the purpose of reimbursing owners of cattle killed and property destroyed, and ownership statements and claims having been filed in proper form, claims for reimbursement were accordingly approved, and payment was begun on May 6, 1915. All such claims have been settled and releases obtained from the owners. 1916] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 It having been decided by the Attorney-General of the Com- monwealth that quarantine expenses on account of animals being held in quarantine on their owner's premises for a longer period than ten days might be paid, such claims if filed in proper form and proven just will be forwarded for payment early in the coming year. Following, in chronological order, are all the important orders and notices relating to the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease issued during the year ending Nov. 30, 1915: — Order No. 16. Dec. 2, 1914. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Order No. 15 is hereby revoked. Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Common- wealth, exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said contagious disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — No live poultry, pigeons or other farm birds are to be shipped or trans- ported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or moved in any manner from another State or territory of the United States into this Common- wealth except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. This order shall take effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, and by general distribution. Fred Freeland Walker, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Dec. 2, 1914. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Modification op Order No. 14. Jan. 13, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the follow- ing regulation: — 26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Department Order No. 14, relating to the movement of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine within the Commonwealth, is hereby modified, and from this date will apply only to the cities and towns mentioned below, and to areas adjacent thereto that may He within a three-mile radius of premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease has during the past three months been known to .exist, and to such other cities and towns, and areas adjacent thereto, in which foot-and-mouth disease may subsequently appear. Amherst. Dracut. Shrewsbury. Ashland. Grafton. Stoneham. Attleboro. Granby. Sudbury. Auburn. Hingham. Swampscott. Bellingham. Lynn. Swansea. Belmont. Maynard. Warren. Berkley. Medford. Watertown. Boston. Mendon. West Boylston Brockton. North Attleborough. Westport. Chicopee. Rehoboth. Worcester. Danvers. Seekonk. Transportation by railroad companies of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine, in any 'portion of the Commonwealth, is allowed only in dis- infected cars. This regulation shall be published by sending copies to inspectors of animals, registered veterinarians and transportation companies in the Commonwealth, and by general distribution. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Jan. 13, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Order No. 17. Jan. 20, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, you are hereby notified that foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease and is so recog- nized under the laws of this Commonwealth, and which has recently prevailed within the limits thereof, is deemed by me to be sufficiently under control of this department to no longer require any restrictions upon the free movement of poultry. Therefore, Department Order No. 16, approved by the Governor and Council Nov. 11, 1914, is hereby revoked. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 Poultry, pigeons and other farm birds may be transported into or moved within this Commonwealth unaccompanied by a permit from this department. This order shall take effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by sending copies to inspectors of animals and to representatives of transportation companies in the Common- wealth, and by general distribution. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Jan. 20, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Notice. Feb. 1, 1915. Modification of Restrictions on Live Stock from Maine and Vermont. Cattle for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above-named States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this department, but no permit will be required for shipment of such cattle to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection. Cattle not for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above- named States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this depart- ment, but no such cattle will be allowed to go into the "closed areas/' or to the Brighton Stock Yards in Brighton, the Union Stock Yards in Watertown, or the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in Somerville. Cattle not for immediate slaughter must be accompanied by a cer- tificate that same have been continuously in State from which shipment is made since Sept. 1, 1914. The requirements relating to the tuberculin testing of interstate dairy cattle are the same as those in force prior to the recent discovery of foot- and-mouth disease in this State, and may be found in Department Order No. 5, issued Oct. 29, 1913. Application for permits should be made directly to the Commissioner of Animal Industry, who will grant them at his discretion. No permit is required to ship sheep or swine from Maine or Vermont into Massachusetts. Animals arriving within the "exposed areas" will be subject to the regulations of this department in force in those areas. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. "Closed areas," infected premises and territory within a radius of three miles of same. "Exposed areas," that portion of town or city outside of the three- mile radius in which infected premises are located. 28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Notice. Feb. 8, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — According to the provisions of Department Order No. 14, and its modification as approved by the Governor and Council Jan. 13, 1915, the following cities and towns are made subject to the quarantine regu- lations of said Order No. 14 and its modification: — Arlington. Oakham. Waltham. Berlin. Somerville. Cambridge. * Northborough. Springfield. New Braintree. 1 Also areas adjacent thereto that may lie within a three-mile radius of premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease has during the past three months been known to exist. This notice shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of .animals in the Commonwealth and by general distribution. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Order No. 18. Feb. 10, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following regulations: — All cattle and other domestic animals which are affected with, or have been exposed to, foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, shall be destroyed when in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry the public good so requires, and their carcasses buried or otherwise dis- posed of. Districts, buildings and places in which foot-and-mouth disease exists or has existed, and property which may be on or contained therein, such as hay, grain, fodder, utensils, etc., shall be cleansed and disinfected. Such property on infected premises as may be, in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry or that of his agents, a source of danger because of proximity to the contagion existing thereon shall be de- stroyed. » Feb. 10, 1915. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 The Commissioner of Animal Industry may appoint persons to make appraisals on live stock and other property the destruction of which may be ordered in accordance with these regulations. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry.- Approved in Council, Feb. 10, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Amendment to Order No. 14 and its Modification. March 3, 1915. To AH Persons whom it may concern: — Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following regulation: — Order No. 14, approved in Council Nov. 7, 1914, and the modification thereof, approved in Council Jan. 13, 1915, are hereby amended as fol- lows : — The movement of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine may at any time be restricted by order of the Commissioner of Animal Industry in such additional cities and towns of the Commonwealth as in his opinion the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease require. The radius of quarantined areas surrounding premises on which foot- and-mouth disease exists or has existed since Nov. 5, 1914, may be ex- tended or diminished at any time by order of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. This regulation shall take effect upon its approval. Lester II . Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, March 3, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Notice. March 9, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — On account of the continued prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in this and other States, and the danger that cattle shipped into Massa- chusetts even from noninfected areas may acquire the disease en route, it is deemed necessary to hold in quarantine, for a longer period than has heretofore been ordered, all animals shipped into Massachusetts under permit from this department. All orders and regulations of this department governing such ship- ments prior to the recent appearance of foot-and-mouth disease in this 30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. State are still in force. These having been complied with, noninfected animals will be released from quarantine at the expiration of such time as the Commissioner of Animal Industry may deem to have been sufficient for the development of clinical symptoms of foot-and-mouth disease, if the infection had been acquired in any way. If foot-and-mouth disease is found to exist among these quarantined animals, they may be seized and destroyed without appraisal or pay- ment on the part of the Commonwealth, as provided in section 10, chapter 90 of the Revised Laws. It is therefore incumbent upon owners and shippers, in the protection of their own interests, to see to it that dis- infected cars are provided for all shipments, and that strict quarantine is maintained after arrival. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Notice. May 10, 1915. Modification of Restrictions on Live Stock from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire. Cattle for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above-named States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this department, but no permit will be required for shipment of such cattle to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection. Cattle not for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above- named States into Massachusetts on permit issued by this department, but no such cattle will be allowed to go to the Brighton Stock Yards in Brighton, the Union Stock Yards in Watertown, the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in Somerville, or other premises to which the Commissioner of Animal Industry deems it unsafe to ship animals. Cattle not for immediate slaughter must be accompanied by a cer- tificate that same have been continuously in one of the above States since Sept. 1, 1914. The requirements relating to the tuberculin testing of interstate dairy cattle are the same as those in force prior to the recent prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in this State, as per Department Order No. 5, issued Oct. 29, 1913. At present, duration of quarantine on these animals is extended for fifteen days, on account of the danger of infection en route. No permit is required to ship sheep or swine from Maine, Vermont or New Hampshire into Massachusetts, except into "exposed areas." Animals arriving within the "exposed areas" will be subject to the regulations of this department in force in those areas. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. "Exposed areas," infected premises and territory within a radius of three miles of same. 1916.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 Notice. May 17, 1915. To Transportation Companies and All Persons whom it may concern: — On this date and until further notice the premises of the Brighton Stock Yards Company, Brighton, Mass., will be open for the receipt of neat cattle, sheep and swine shipped by rail in disinfected cars marked "for immediate slaughter only," which shipments may be made without permit; also for the receipt of the same class of animals which may arrive by vehicle accompanied by permit issued by the Commissioner of Animal Industry. The premises will remain under quarantine, and subject to regulations of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Massachusetts De- partment of Animal Industry and their inspectors and agents. Animals will leave the premises only under the following regulations: — 1. By rail, under seal of a Federal inspector and consigned to slaughter- ing establishments under Federal inspection. 2. By public highway, under permit of the Massachusetts Department of Animal Industry, and consigned to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection. No exception will be made to these regulations, therefore the attention of shippers should be called to them. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Notice. July 1, 1915. To Transportation Companies and All Persons whom it may concern: — On this date and until further notice the premises known as the Union Stock Yards, Watertown, Mass., will be open for the receipt of neat cattle, sheep and swine shipped by rail in disinfected cars marked "for immediate slaughter only," which shipments may be made without permit from any point within the Commonwealth, and from the States of Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire; also for the receipt of the same class of animals which may arrive by vehicle accompanied by a permit issued by the Commissioner of Animal Industry. The premises will remain under quarantine and subject to the regu- lations of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Massa- chusetts Department of Animal Industry and their inspectors and agents. Animals will be allowed to leave these premises only under the following regulations : — 1 . By rail, under seal of a Federal inspector and consigned to slaughter- ing establishments under Federal inspection. 2. By public highway, under permit of the Massachusetts Depart- 32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan, ment of Animal Industry aod consigned to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection. No exceptions will be made to these regulations, therefore the attention of shippers should be called to them. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Order No. 19. Aug. 24, 1915. To Transportation Companies, the Brighton Stock Yards Company, the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company, and All Persons whom it may concern: — Whereas foot-and-mouth disease has apparently been eradicated from all portions of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and from the State of New Hampshire, and at no time during the prevalence of the recent epidemic has been known to exist in the States of Maine or Vermont, and Whereas, in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry, it is safe to modify somewhat the quarantine regulations now in force affect- ing the Brighton market, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation: — Section 1. On and after Aug. 30, 1915, the premises of the Brighton Stock Yards Company in Brighton, within the city of Boston, the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in the city of Somerville, and the Union Stock Yards in the town of Watertown, will be open for the receipt of neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine from any part of Massachusetts and from the States of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont; provided, that all such animals have been within the area of the said four states continuously since Sept. 1, 1914, and have not been, at any time since that date, on premises where foot- and-mouth disease has existed. Section 2. All consignments of neat cattle to the premises mentioned in section 1 hereof will be subject to the regulations applying to said premises and animals therein in force prior to the receDt outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, which regulations are contained in Department Order No. 5, approved in Council July 31, 1912, and Oct. 29, 1913. This order shall be published by furnishing copies to transportation companies and by mailing a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Aug. 25, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 Order No. 21. Oct. 6, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Whereas foot-and-mouth disease now prevails extensively among cattle, sheep and swine in the State of Illinois, and restriction of the ship- ment of animals therefrom seems necessary as a measure of prevention of an outbreak of that disease in this Commonwealth, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation: — Section 1. The bringing of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine into the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from the State of Illinois for any purpose whatever is hereby prohibited, except on written permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. This order shall not apply to animals in transit from some other State through the State of Illinois; provided, the same are intended for immediate slaughter, and consigned to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection; and provided, further, that the animals are not unloaded in said State from the cars or vehicles in which they were originally shipped. Section 2. This order shall be published by sending copies to railroad com- panies engaged in the transportation of animals to Massachusetts, and to persons, firms or corporations which receive interstate shipments of animals intended for slaughter. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Oct. 6, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Order No. 22. Oct. 5, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — . Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the follow- ing regulation : — Owing to the receipt this day at the premises of the Brighton Stock Yards Company in Brighton within the city of Boston, Mass., of an animal suspected of being affected with foot-and-mouth disease, said premises and all neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine now con- tained in the barns or yards of said premises are hereby placed in special 34 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. quarantine until released therefrom by the Commissioner of Animal Industry. During the existence of this special quarantine all persons entering or leaving said premises shall be subject to such regulations as the Commis- sioner of Animal Industry may deem necessary in order to properly en- force and maintain said special quarantine. The Union Market Stock Yards at Watertown are hereby declared closed until further notice. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Oct. 6, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Notice. Oct. 11, 1915. To the Inspector of Animals, and to All Others whom it may concern: — ■ Foot-and-mouth disease has been found to exist in the town of Leicester. Therefore, acting under authorit}' given me under Order No. 14, ap- proved in Council November 7, and amendment to Order No. 14, ap- proved in Council March 3, I do hereby order that no neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants or swine are to be shipped or transported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or to be driven on any public highway or byway in any city or town within Worcester County, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Notice. Oct. 15, 1915. To Transportation Companies and All Others whom it may concern: — Dear Sir: — Farm-to-farm inspection in the town of Leicester and its vicinity having failed to disclose the existence of any additional cases of foot-and-mouth disease, it is deemed safe to modify the quarantine placed upon Worcester County. Therefore, on this date and until further notice, the movement of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine is not restricted except within a radius of five miles of premises of John P. Stevens of Leicester. Very truly yours, Lester H. Howard, Commissioner. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 35 Letter sent to Cattle Owners and Transportation Companies. c Oct. 23, 1915. Dear Sir : — On this date, and until further notice, the Brighton Stock Yards at Brighton, Mass., will be open for traffic in dairy and slaughter animals under the regulations of this department applying thereto. A regulation of the United States government now in force specifies that cattle, sheep or swine must not be shipped interstate either to or from any portion of Worcester County, Mass. Therefore, animals passing through the Brighton Stock Yards for purposes of sale should be con- signed therefrom in accordance with this regulation. The State regulation now in force does not allow cattle, sheep or swine to move to or from territory within a radius of five miles of infected premises in the town of Leicester. Very truly yours, Lester H. Howard, Commissioner. Statistics in connection with the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease follow. They show the towns, in alphabetical order, in which the disease has been found, the number of affected herds in those towns, the date on which positive cases of the disease were found, the date of killing of the animals, and the amount for which they were appraised. Statistics on Foot-and-Mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 80, 1915. City or Town. Date reported Positive. Date of Killing. Cattle. Swine. Appraisal. Arlington, Attleboro, Attleboro, Berkley, Boston, Boston, Chicopee, Dracut, Everett, Everett, . . Feb. 8 Dec. 3 Feb. 15 Jan. 4 fMar. 22 \ Apr. 13 [Apr. 27 Feb. 7 Dec. 6 Feb. 21 Mar. 1 Feb. 11 Dec. 11 / Dec. 18 \ [Feb. 19/ Jan. 7 Mar. 221 Apr. 15 \ May 3 J / Jan. 28 \ \Feb. 1/ Feb. 11 Dec. 12 Feb. 25 Mar. 2 9 4 17 3 10 39 11 15 3 16 271 7 25 $515 00 365 00 3,050 00 950 00 -i 565 00 3,086 50 900 00 1,160 00 1 Found on postmortem at the Brighton Abattoir. 36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Statistics on Foot-and-Mouth Disease — Continued. City ok Town. Date reported Positive. Date of Killing. Cattle. Swine. Appraisal. Fall River, Feb. 27 Mar. 2 22 1 $1,306 00 Fall River, Feb. 28 Mar. 2 1 - 65 00 Grafton, Dec. 1 Dec. 8 17 - 930 00 Grafton, Mar. 3 Mar. 10 30 12 1,810 00 Granby, Dec. 4 Dec. 14 36 10 2,143 00 Hingham, Apr. 15 Apr. 15 7 — 4 525 00 Holden, Feb. 13 Feb. 20 4 - 180 00 Leicester, Oct. 11 Oct. 15 12 - 750 00 Lexington, ..... Feb. 18 Feb. 21 12 253 3,525 00 Lexington, Mar. 1 Mar. 3 12 - 840 00 Marlborough, .... Mar. 8 Mar. 11 35 - 3,300 00 Marlborough, .... Mar. 9 Mar. 11 20 - 1,100 00 New Braintree, .... Feb. 9 Feb. 13 25 11 1,734 00 Northampton, .... Mar. 11 Mar. 15 2 17 347 00 Northborough, • . Feb. 6 Feb. 15 3 2 220 00 Oakham, Feb. 5 Feb. 12 24 1 1,250 00 Rehoboth, ... Dec. 4 Dec. 8 32 - 2,400 00 Rehoboth, Dec. 4 f Dec. 9 1 Dec. 10 \ [Dec. 11 J 24 1,075 25,540'. 00 » Rehoboth, Dec. 6 Dec. 11 19 - 1,350 00 Rehoboth, . . . • Jan. 1 f Dec. 4 1 [Jan. 5 / 30 - 1,359 00 Russell, Feb. 22 Mar. 1 3 4 216 00 Seekonk, Dec. 4 f Dec. 9 ) Dec. 10 [Dec. 11 J - 958 - Seekonk, Dec. 19 /Dec. 22 1 i Dec. 23 / 1 1,109 10,255 25 Seekonk, Mar. 6 Mar. 9 60 - 4,600 00 Seekonk, Mar. 15 Mar. 17 51 3 4,060 00 Somerville, Feb. 8 - - - _2 Southborough, .... Feb. 11 Feb. 13 16 - 1,095 00 Southborough, .... Feb. 15 Feb. 17 4 - 280 002 Southborough, . . Feb. 15 - - - - Southborough, . . Feb. . 19 Feb. 24 109 - 7,000 00 Springfield, Feb. 3 Feb. 8 2 - 160 00 Swampscott, , Dec. 2 Dec. 5 39 - 2,400 00 i Includes appraisal on 958 head of swine given below. 2 Found on postmortem at slaughtering establishment. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 Statistics on Foot-and~Mouth Disease — Concluded. City or Town. Date reported Positive. Date of Killing. Cattle. Swine. Appraisal. Swansea, Swansea, Swansea, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Waltham, Warren, Watertown, . Watertown, . Westborough, Weston, Westport, Worcester, . Worcester, Totals, Dec. 15 Mar. 5 Mar. 10 Feb. 6 Feb. 8 Feb. 11 Feb. 17 Feb. 18 Feb. 22 Feb. 26 Feb. 28 Dec. 1 Feb. 14 Mar. 6 Mar. 13 Feb. 17 Mar. 18 Jan. 30 Feb. 20 Dec. 17 Mar. 13 Mar. 11 Feb. 12 Feb. 12 Feb. 15 Feb. 20 Feb. 20 Feb. 26 Feb. 28 Mar. 3 Dec. 4 Feb. 17 Mar. 8 Mar. 16 Feb. 20 Mar. 19 Feb. 19 (Feb. 241 Mar. 9 Mar. 17 Mar. 19 Mar. 25 Mar. 31 J 9 22 25 12 95 22 34 4 32 10 49 6 81 1,235 2 429 31 60 3 1,529 5,840 $280 00 3,943 50 410 00 5,000 00 500 00 1,100 00 1,200 00 875 00 8,150 00 1,650 00 2,764 00 225 00 1,900 00 750 00 877 00 4,300 00 475 00 13,650 00 23,746 88i $163,128 13 1 Of these animals, 413 were sold for pork on the market before affected. They were appraised at $8,203.50; salvage was $4,406.62. The difference only, which it was agreed should be paid, — namely, $3,796.88, — ■ is included in the total appraisal above. In addition to the above animals there were 75 sheep, 10 goats and 3 fowl appraised, killed and paid for, the appraisal, a small amount, being included in the above total. The number of herds examined by agents of the department one or more times during the past year was 648. In every branch of the control work the hearty cooperation of officials of the United States Department of Agriculture has been given this department. Without the Federal aid so promptly rendered and systematically carried out to the final completion of the work, the problem of eradication of foot-and- mouth disease in Massachusetts would have been a much more serious one, both in the extent of the infection and in reimburse- 38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. merit of the owners of cattle and other property destroyed, and in the necessarily large expense incurred in the execution of the work. The following statistics covering the entire outbreak of foot- and-mouth disease, which began on Nov. 5, 1914, may be interesting : — Infected premises, . . . . 98 Towns in which the disease was found, 50 Places visited and herds examined by agents at least once, and many of them two or more times, . . . . . . 1,248 Cattle killed, 2,126 Swine killed, 6,116 Sheep killed, ........'.... 77 Goats killed, 11 Fowl killed, 1,697 Appraisal of animals killed, $231,694 38 Appraisal of property destroyed, 8,562 47 Total, $240,256 85 Amount of special appropriation, $150,000 00 Paid by the Commonwealth to date, being 50 per cent, of the appraised value, $113,195 12 Total number of claims paid to date, ..... 104 Hog Cholera. The decrease of 39,615 head of swine in Massachusetts from 1912 to 1914 proved upon investigation to be due largely to the ravages of hog cholera, either directly or because many stock- men had discontinued keeping swine on account of the preva- lence of the disease. This condition was rapidly ruining the swine industry of Massachusetts, and it is because of this condition and the necessity of controlling this contagious disease that the Department of Animal Industry is engaged in treating or immunizing swine against hog cholera. The usual mortality after hog cholera gains access to a herd, if serum treatment is not given, is from 85 to 100 per cent. Our statistics show that, by prompt application of this treatment after cholera gains access to a herd, we have been successful in saving 92 per cent, of the animals so treated. They further show that animals 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 39 when properly immunized will riot contract cholera, regardless of how prevalent the disease may be in the neighborhood. In this treatment anti-hog cholera serum and virus are used. Anti-hog cholera serum is the blood from an animal which is hyper-immune (many times immune), and which contains enormous numbers of anti-bodies which resemble anti-toxin. This serum or blood has the faculty of temporarily protecting other swine into which it may be injected. This protection is called temporary immunity, and lasts for a period varying from three to twelve weeks, after which the swine are again sus- ceptible. This treatment is commonly called "serum only" treatment, and is used in swine which show clinical symptoms of hog cholera or which are carrying a high temperature, also in pigs which are not old enough for the simultaneous treatment (under 40 pounds), in pregnant sows, in sows nursing pigs, and in animals which need protection for only a very short time, as in the case of animals which are to be slaughtered within a few weeks. Hog cholera "virus" is virulent blood which is drawn from a pig during the height of an attack of hog cholera. This blood or virus used in small quantities, in combination with a large amount of serum, is what is spoken of as "simultaneous" treatment, and this treatment when properly administered gives the animal a permanent immunity. This is accomplished in the following manner : — The serum, which is injected as before explained, temporarily protects the animal. The virus, on the other hand, which is simultaneously injected, stimulates the cells of the body to produce their own anti-bodies, and once this production is started it continues indefinitely, therefore giving a permanent immunity. The department is using both the "serum only" and the "simultaneous" treatments. The simultaneous treatment is administered to all swine on infected premises or in noninfected herds upon application of the owners, where the animals are to be kept longer than a few weeks, providing that they are over 40 pounds' weight and are not under the classification for which we use the "serum only" treatment. Every case of hog cholera reported is investigated by one of 40 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. our agents and serum treatment advised if conditions warrant the same. In all cases the treatment is carried out by agents of the department, and the only expense to the owner is for the serum and virus which are used, the Commonwealth defraying all other expenses. The campaign of the Department of Animal Industry against hog cholera has been vigorously conducted throughout the year, notwithstanding the fact that it has been badly handicapped because practically all of the agents who are ordinarily doing hog cholera work were engaged for fully two months in an effort to exterminate foot-and-mouth disease, which left the cholera work practically at a standstill during that time. In spite of this fact the amount of work which has been done is most satisfactory. One might assume, in comparing our statistics for 1915 with those of 1914, that hog cholera was on the increase in Massa- chusetts. Such, however, is not the case. Until this year we had no method of determining the amount of cholera which existed in this State, or the number of animals which died from the disease and the resultant financial loss. This was due largely to the fact that stock-men were not aware of the fact that the disease could be prevented or possibly cured. As they learned that this could be done, and that it was not necessary for swine to die from the disease or to be slaughtered as formerly, there has been a large increase in the demand for this work and in the number of cases reported, consequently we have a much better idea of the amount of cholera which actually exists. Undoubtedly this increase will continue during the coming year, notwithstanding the fact that in many herds which heretofore have annually lost hundreds of swine from cholera we now, by immunization, have the disease under control. In 1915 we investigated on account of cholera 349 herds of swine as against 100 reported in 1914. We immunized against cholera, at the request of the owners, the swine in 95 non- infected herds, as against one herd in 1914. In 1914, because of limited investigations, we knew of only 900 head of swine which died from cholera without being treated. In 1915, because of our more extended investigations and field work, 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 41 we know of 3,080 head of swine which have died from hog cholera without treatment. The table on pages 47 and 48 gives some idea of the amount of work which has been done, together with the results ob- tained. From these figures it will be seen that 16,983 head of swine have been treated during the year. Of this number, 10,300 animals have received the "serum only" treatment, either because they were already infected, or because they were not in the proper condition to receive the simultaneous treatment. Out of this number 718 animals, or approximately 7 per cent., have died. In infected herds 5,826 animals have received the simultaneous treatment. Of this number 70, or 1.2 per cent., have died. It is well to note at this time that at least 99 per cent, of the animals before mentioned were garbage fed, and under these conditions the mortality must be considered ex- tremely low. Probably no portion of our statistics will be more interesting than that regarding the noninfected herds. In 95 herds 863 animals were immunized. Of this number only one died from hog cholera. This one animal could undoubtedly have been saved by reinforcing with serum had the owner not objected to such a procedure. Three pigs in noninfected herds gave a strong reaction to the treatment and were off feed for a few days, but fully recovered. This shows clearly that the amount of vaccination cholera which follows our work is negligible. A word regarding recrudescence (return of the disease) will be of interest. We are frequently asked regarding the danger of using the simultaneous treatment and later discontinuing the same. On general principles we do not advocate this .policy. In the few noninfected herds where this has been done we have not had a single case where the disease has occurred at a later time, although many young, susceptible pigs have been and still are on the premises. It frequently happens that many pigs from immune sows, which are of course immune while nursing, do not receive serum until several weeks after they are weaned, because we are unable to answer all applications for immunization as promptly as we desire. During this time they are, of course, susceptible and would undoubtedly contract cholera if infection existed on the premises. The other extreme, 42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. , [Jan. however, is noticed in infected herds. In the majority of these herds, just as soon as the immunity' conferred by the serum wears off, the animals contract cholera. This has happened in a large majority of the infected herds where treatment has been carried on, and consequently it is our policy, as far as possible, to either give more serum in six weeks after the "serum only" treatment has been given, or to permanently immunize by the simultaneous treatment. In these cases there is every reason to blame the return or continuation of the trouble, not upon the use of virus in administering the simultaneous treatment, but upon the fact that the premises are badly infected and that a proper scheme of disinfection has not been carried out. Early in the year the policy was adopted of not giving the simultaneous treatment to swine until five or six weeks had elapsed after serum administration. Previous to that time it frequently happened that animals were given the simultaneous treatment within a shorter space of time, and invariably we found where this was done that the animals were given an immunity longer than that conferred by serum only, but that they did not receive a permanent immunity. We are strongly of the opinion, notwithstanding that some authorities do not agree with us, that it is impossible to give a permanent im- munity while an animal is harboring a temporary immunity. The length of the temporary immunity being uncertain, in field work we have adopted six weeks as a minimum length of time which must elapse before the simultaneous treatment can follow the administration of serum only. With this same purpose in view we are now using larger amounts of virus than heretofore. Whereas formerly one-half cubic centimeter of virus was used on pigs of from 40 to 60 pounds, we are now using one cubic centimeter, which has overcome some of our difficulties regard- ing a partial immunity. An interesting deduction may be drawn from animals in infected herds which have temperatures ranging from 103.5 to 106. It will be noted that 944 of these animals received simultaneous treatment. This was done in specially selected herds, and in these cases the average dose of virus was ad- ministered with more than the ordinary dose of serum. In every case the operator was an expert man and used this 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 43 method only when he was reasonably sure that the temperature was ascending rather than descending. Our statistics show that the results from this method have been equally as good as in animals with a temperature below 103.5, but extreme caution and good judgment are required when this is done. The record of deaths following our treatment we believe to be unusually accurate, due to the method which we pursue in obtaining these figures. Report blanks are sent to the owner of the swine after the animals have been treated. A copy of this report blank follows : — 44 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. En o I— I O H Eh O o O a o o o •d © s •o © £ S © © t- > bo * J B o <! o Eh H P3 «! d. Q a? P W o 02 7? & 5 § +3 © d ^ © ^ CQ f © i; © ^ u bo 2 o s ft 03 .5 ® bo '3 * 8 ■P co fl S3 © CO S 3 5 c 6 u £g 2 a £S 5 § n ■p w bO a u 3 O a a o " EH 3« w u <! H H Q p Ph -d T3 © c3 o3 a a o K oj 3 03 >> & a o K o a >> a 03 2 o >> o Q 03 "S rW © « J3 >> O Xt a .2 '•+3 © M 03 _ Pi 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45 It will be seen that the owner makes a report once in every two weeks for six weeks. In the meantime his herd is under quarantine, said quarantine remaining on the herd until his reports have been received; and from our experience we know that if there is anything to criticize regarding results the owner is far more apt to report these conditions than the operator might be. There are, however, some difficulties with this method because occasionally animals die from causes other than cholera, and the owner, not being able to diagnose the case, ascribes the death to the treatment. If we were able to pick out these cases the number of deaths following treatment would be even lower. During the past year a widespread prevalence of foot-and- mouth disease in three states of the middle west originated in the use of anti-hog cholera serum which had been contaminated with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. While our Order No. 12 protected us to a certain degree against this condition, it was not deemed quite sufficient. Consequently, Department Order No. 20 was promulgated and approved by the Governor and Council. A copy of this order follows : — Order No. 20. Sept. 15, 1915. To All Persons whom it may concern: — Whereas the Department of Animal Industry is now actively en- gaged in the control and eradication of hog cholera, which is a contagious disease, and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, And whereas successful control of this disease has been accomplished only in those States which have regulated and restricted the sale, distri- bution, possession and administration of various commercial products known as anti-hog cholera serum, and virulent blood or virus, which products, while designed to prevent or cure hog cholera, in the hands of untrained men tend to create and cause an epidemic of this disease, Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation : — No person, firm or corporation shall directly or indirectly administer, or procure or cause to be administered, or have in possession with intent to have administered directly or indirectly, within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, anti-hog cholera scrum, virulent blood or visius, or any 46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. other preparation of a similar composition under whatever name, and administered in a similar way for the prevention and cure of hog cholera, unless written permission has been obtained from the Commissioner of Animal Industry for such administration or possession. This order shall take effect upon its approval. This order shall be published by- sending a copy to each inspector of animals in the Commonwealth, and by distribution to known breeders of swine, to commercial houses known to be dealing in the aforesaid products, and to veterinarians registered under the laws of the Com- monwealth. Lester H. Howard, Commissioner of Animal Industry. Approved in Council, Sept. 15, 1915. E. F. Hamlin, Executive Secretary. Since January of 1915 we have tested all anti-hog cholera serum and virus which have been used by our agents. These products are tested not only against foot-and-mouth disease, but also to ascertain whether or not the serum is potent and the virus virulent. This is done because it is known that to obtain good results in immunizing against hog cholera two things are absolutely necessary, — first, the work must be properly carried out, and secondly, the operator must use serum, which is known to be potent and virus which is virulent. There is no certainty that anti-hog cholera serum and virus, as ordinarily sold, meet these requirements. Our testing of these products, therefore, affords the owners of swine a large degree of security which could not possibly be enjoyed in any other manner. A comparison of the results obtained in different sections of the country verifies this statement. Unfavorable results from the simultaneous treatment have been experienced in States where the use of virus is not restricted to trained men responsible to the State, or where the most stringent tests of serum and virus are not carried out. The results obtained in any locality may be judged by this standard. During the year we have had considerable trouble from a secondary infection from bacillus suipestifer and bacillus suisepticus, and we are at present working along lines which we trust will prevent this complication. We have every reason to believe that the work in connection with the prevention and treatment of hog cholera will increase 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 very rapidly. The swine problem in Massachusetts differs from that in many other States. The closeness of piggeries to each other, the fact that approximately 90 per cent, of all swine are garbage fed, and the unusually heavy intrastate traffic make practically every herd an exposed one. Under these conditions the only feasible way to control hog cholera seems to be in permanently immunizing all susceptible swine by the simultaneous method. The swine owners with whom we are familiar have no desire for the "serum only" treatment, inasmuch as its cost is practically as great as for the simul- taneous treatment, and the immunity conferred by the former is only temporary, whereas the latter gives a permanent immunity. Our most serious handicap in the work at the present time is the fact that we have not a sufficient number of trained men to handle it properly, as the demand for preventive treatment is increasing rapidly. This results in some unavoidable delay in the administration of the treatment after applications for same are received. This condition, however, we hope to be able to overcome in the coming year. Statistics on Hog Cholera for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1915. Number of herds investigated, . . . - . . . . 349 Number of herds in which hog cholera was diagnosed, . . 227 Number of infected herds quarantined and treatment ad- ministered, ............ 150 Number of infected herds quarantined but not treated, . . 77 Number of swine reported as having died from hog cholera without treatment,- . 3,080 Approximate value of these animals, . . . . . . $11,052 Number of swine reported slaughtered because of hog cholera, . 909 " Serum only" treatment: — Number of pigs too young for simultaneous treatment, . . 4,185 Number of sows pregnant, 69 Number of sows nursing pigs, 103 Number of animals in above classes which died following treatment, 91 Number of animals showing clinical symptoms or tempera- tures over 104, . 5,953 Number of infected animals which treatment failed to save, . 627 48 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Total number receiving " serum only" treatment, . . . 10,300 Total number which treatment failed to save, .... 718 Percentage of animals saved by " serum only " treatment, . 93 Simultaneous treatment in infected herds : — Number immunized with temperatures below 103.5, . . 4,876 Number of animals which died following immunization, . 39 Number immunized with temperatures above 103.5, . . 944 Number of these animals which died following immuniza- tion, 31 Total number receiving simultaneous treatment in infected herds, 5,826 Total number which treatment failed to save, .... 70 Percentage of animals saved by simultaneous treatment in in- fected herds, 98.8 Simultaneous treatment in noninf ected herds : — ■ Number of herds, 95 Number of animals immunized, 863 Number of animals which died following immunization, . 1 Approximate value of animals treated, . . . . . . $200,000 Approximate value of animals which treatment failed to save, . 4,182 Cost of serum and virus to the owners, 11,838 Approximate amount of money saved owners, . . . 183,980 Total number of animals treated, . . . . ■ . . . 16,983 Total number of infected animals which treatment did not save, . . . . ' 789 Tuberculosis. The study of tuberculosis both in man and animals is one to which much attention has been given for many years, and the problem of its control among animals is so important at the present day as to command the attention of many investigators. Individuals, commissions, government investigators and State experiment station workers have made many contributions to the knowledge of this subject. As the department records show a continued widespread prevalence of this disease in Massachusetts for many years, constant activity is necessary in order that its spread may be limited as far as possible, both on account of the sanitary significance of its existence as well as the great economic 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 importance of the same, which is shown by the fact that 1,079 Massachusetts cattle have during the past year been condemned and killed on account of being affected with tuberculosis, for which the State has paid to the owners approximately $35,000. Whether or not the disease is increasing or diminishing among our neat cattle is a question that cannot be accurately answered. The number of animals infected cannot be de- termined, as but a small percentage of them are subjected to the tuberculin test, which test is the most reliable diagnostic method at our command. It has been clearly established that there are certain herds and certain localities in which the disease is much more prevalent than in others. It has also been shown that there are many premises and localities where tuberculosis is rarely found, conditions of climate, breeding, traffic in animals, development and replenishment of the herds being especially favorable to maintenance of health. Considering the economic importance of tuberculosis among cattle, facts relating to its distribution must be kept in mind when efforts are being made to control its spread. When once introduced into a herd it is liable to spread from infected to well animals with more or less rapidity. It causes a large number of animals to be condemned and killed, and it reduces very largely the market value of such animals as may be infected but have not been recognized as diseased. It reduces the breeding value of animals. It causes a waste from the fact that tuberculous animals do not give adequate returns for the food supplied them, and in many cases its development destroys the interest of a breeder in the maintenance of his herd at a high standard of health. Our State laws relating to the control of this disease impose the following condition: that tuberculin as a diagnostic agent for the detection of this disease shall be used only upon cattle which are brought into the Commonwealth from other States, and upon such animals within the State as their owners request be tuberculin tested. Therefore, condemnation of a Massa- chusetts animal as tuberculous can be made only as the result of a physical examination. The result of this limitation in methods of diagnosis undoubtedly is that many cases of tuber- culosis exist because the disease cannot be positively diagnosed. 50 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Being limited in our condemnation of cases to those diagnosed by physical examination alone, it is important that there be developed and applied all possible skill and efficiency in this method of diagnosis, and also that it be used as extensively as is practicable in order that existing cases may be found. It has been the practice heretofore in the department, on the occasion of an animal being quarantined on account of being suspected of this disease, for an agent to visit the premises and physically examine the animal, condemning or releasing the same according to his opinion as to whether or not it was diseased. His action in each instance has been limited to the particular animal on which a quarantine had been placed. In my opinion, in order that the spread of the disease on the particular premises visited may be limited in so far as is possible, it becomes necessary to carefully and completely examine all other animals in the herd in which the tuberculous animal has been found. Otherwise, it seems to me we are simply temporizing with a very serious condition, and that no real progress can be made in the elimination of disease by simply examining and taking certain diseased animals from a herd without making sure that no others on the same premises are also diseased. The history of the control of this disease in certain herds and localities shows that at more or less regular intervals the de- partment is called upon to examine and condemn one animal only in a herd. Believing that in many instances other cases quite as dangerous as centers of infection may exist on the same premises, I have accordingly ordered that hereafter when an agent of the department finds one tuberculous animal he shall immediately carefully examine all other animals in the herd, and if suspected cases are found he shall notify the owner of existing conditions, have the suspected animals placed in quarantine, and disposed of according to the methods followed in the original case. In the short time in which this method has been in operation we have found that in many instances two centers of infection have been destroyed where formerly the second one was left to do its deadly work, unrecognized but none the less effective. With a disease which is ordinarily slow in development of 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 symptoms, subsequent examinations of a herd which has been exposed must necessarily result in bringing to light cases which under the former custom would probably not have been recognized until a much later date, and during that time might have caused much damage by spread of the infection. There- fore, in my opinion, there should be added to the regulation requiring herd examinations one requiring that the same premises be visited within a period of three months and the animals again examined, in order that cases which may have developed clinically since the first visit may be found and disposed of. Careful physical examination by trained men at regular intervals of all animals which have been exposed to tuberculosis should, in the course of time, have a marked effect in reducing the number of tuberculous animals in the State. Owing to the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease shipment of cattle into Massachusetts from other States was prohibited during a large portion of the year, and the Brighton Stock Yards, the public market through which the greater number of cattle coming from other States are distributed to Massa- chusetts farms, was closed for a period of nine months. The number of cattle brought into the State was therefore very much reduced. This was unavoidable, however, as in protection of the cattle interests of the entire State it was necessary to use every precaution against the further introduction of this in- fection. Therefore our records of the tuberculin testing of interstate cattle during the past year show the number to have been very much reduced from previous years. At the present time restrictions against the shipment of cattle from Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, imposed on account of the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease, have been removed. From these States comes the greater portion of cattle shipped to Massachusetts interstate, and the cattle owners of the State are therefore again able to replenish their herds by importa- tions from the States mentioned. As having an important bearing on the existence and spread of tuberculosis in Massachusetts, attention may be called to the character of the work done by the department in testing inter- state animals with tuberculin in order to disclose whether or 52 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. not they are diseased. For the purpose of properly protecting the health of the animals of the State it is necessary that the application of the tuberculin test on interstate cattle should be surrounded with every condition looking to the proper interpre- tation of the result. In the first place, the animals should be in proper condition to receive the subcutaneous injection of the material used in the test, and secondly, regulations should be carefully formulated for the conduct of the test from that point forward, and should be strictly adhered to. The tests should be made by men of training and experience, and the results determined by intelligent study of the records made. A particular effort has been made the past year by the department to enforce regulations the observance of which will comply with the conditions above mentioned. The department's tuberculin testing which is done at the Brighton Stock Yards, and is applied to all dairy cattle shipped interstate to the quarantine stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville, is now under the charge of a veterinarian who has had w T ide experience in this work and has been in the service of the department for many years. Tuberculin testing done at other points in the State under the auspices of the department is in all cases done by an accredited man of training and experience. As the department is in the habit of accepting and approving records of tuberculin tests made by veterinarians of other States on cattle which are shipped to Massachusetts, every effort has been made to insure the proper performance of this work in accordance with our own regulations. If for any reason discredit attaches to the work of any veterinarian making a test, the animals are retested by our own agents, and approval of tests made by the discredited man withheld in all subsequent cases. It should be said that very seldom has the department been called upon to discredit any test made by a qualified veterinarian, either in this State or in other States from which cattle are shipped to Massachusetts. As we require the ap- proval of the live-stock authorities of every State whose veteri- narians make tests on animals to be shipped to Massachusetts, it is our opinion that Massachusetts interests are entirely safe- guarded in this matter. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53 Below are various tables showing the extent of the depart- ment's work in connection with the control of tuberculosis in the State for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915. Cattle Tuberculin tested. Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, Cattle tested by veterinarians outside the State : : — Received at Brighton, . . . . . 338 Received at other points, . ■ . . . 4,912 Cattle tested by agents of the department at points other than the quarantine station, .... Cattle awaiting test, . . . . .... Disposition of Above Cattle. Cattle condemned on Brighton test, . . . Cattle killed on " permit to kill," Brighton test, Cattle released from Brighton as free from tuber culosis, . . . - Cattle condemned on test at other points in State, Killed on physical examination, Killed on " permit to kill" after first test, Disposed of for beef after first test, . Awaiting test or retest, .... Released as free from tuberculosis, . 4,858 5,250 5,258 2 135 ■ 43 5,018 173 1 1 4 8 9,985 15,368 15,368 Total number of cattle quarantined or reported for examination during the year, . 1,787 Massachusetts Cattle. Number released, 194 Number condemned, killed and paid for, . 941 Number condemned and killed, in process of settlement, 107 Number condemned, no award, ... 4 Number permit to kill, paid for, ... 23 Number permit to kill, in process of settle- ment, 8 Number permit to kill, no award, . . . 121 Number killed by owner or died in quarantine, no award, 58 1,456 54 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan, Cattle from without the State. Number released, 9 Number condemned and killed, no award, . 264 Number condemned and killed, no lesions found, paid for, . . . . - . . . 14 Number died in quarantine, no award, 1 Number permit to kill, no award, ... 43 331 ^il 1,787 1 Of the 331 interstate cattle, 154 were tested at Brighton; no lesions were found in 8, for which the State has reimbursed the owner. Of the remaining 177 cattle (which were tested at other points than Brighton) 6 were found to show no lesions, for which the State has reimbursed the owners. In addition to the 1,787 head of cattle disposed of as above, 189 cattle and 12 swine have been reported by butchers, Tenderers and boards of health as having been found tuber- culous at the time of slaughter, all of which were rendered. During the year a number of cattle owners made voluntary request for the tuberculin testing of their herds by agents of the department. The figures which follow show the work which was done in response to these requests : — Number of cattle tested, 124 Number released as healthy, . - . . . . . . .105 Number killed on " permit to kill," no award, . . . .10 Number condemned, killed and paid for, 5 Number condemned and killed, no award, 4 124 Forty-nine head of cattle reported as reacting to tests made by private veterinarians were released, as they could not be condemned on physical examination. Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stock Yards for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1915. New Hampshire cattle, . 1,595 Vermont cattle, ... . . 1,610 Massachusetts cattle, 614 Sheep and lambs, . . 646 Calves, . . . . 5,219 Swine, , 990 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 55 Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 80, 1915. Maine cattle, 3,391 New Hampshire cattle, . . . 2,751 Vermont cattle, 8,099 Massachusetts cattle, . 120 Western cattle, . . . . . . ' . . . . . 5,155 Canada cattle, . . . '. ■'. ....-■ 3,564 Sheep and lambs, . . 310,518 Calves, . . . . 75,331 Swine, . . . . ' . 1,033,100 Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1915. Maine cattle, 4,648 New Hampshire cattle, 5,944 Vermont cattle, . . . . . . . . . 7,151 Massachusetts cattle, 13,819 New York cattle, 2,901 Western cattle, 18,037 Canada cattle, . . . . . . . . . . . 1,202 Sheep and lambs, . . . . . . . . . . 5,964 Calves, 46.365 Swine . . 51,737 Report of Cattle brought into State during the Year to Points outside of the Quarantine Stations. For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 4,912 For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 5,258 For dairy and breeding purposes, awaiting test, . . 2 Neat cattle on which no test was required, exclusive of cattle and calves for immediate slaughter, . The last item is made up as follows : — Returned from out-of-State pastures, Calves under six months old, Died before test could be made, Lost en route or in pasture, Injured and killed before test, . For temporary stay at exhibition or at auctions, Shipped to another State soon after arrival, . Remaining in State for brief periods only, Cattle for immediate slaughter, Calves for immediate slaughter, Total for all purposes, 480 145 3 2 1 60 53 4 10,172 748 1,934 3,992 16,846 56 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Nearly all of the total number of animals given above were brought into the State on permits issued by the head of the department, only 341 having been brought in without permits, which were reported to the department by railroad agents, local inspectors or others. Of these, 43 were tested before ship- ment, 23 were slaughtered at once for beef or veal, 2 were calves under six months old, 171 were returned from pasture, and the remainder, 102 head, were tested by agents of the de- partment. The following figures show the disposition of animals that were brought into the State to points outside the quarantine stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville, which failed to pass a satisfactory tuberculin test : — Condemned on first test . . . 74 Condemned on second test, 94 Condemned on third test, 5 Killed on physical examination, . . . . . . . . 1 Killed on "permit to kill" after first test, 1 Killed for beef by owner after first test, ...... 2 Disposed of for beef before retest could be made, . . . 2 Awaiting retest 4 Isolated and awaiting third test, 2 185 Results in the Above Cases. Found diseased on postmortem examination, 163 No lesions found, paid for by State, 11 No report of postmortem examination obtainable, . . . . 4 Awaiting report of result, 1 Cases of animals still awaiting retest, 4 Animals isolated and awaiting third test, 2 185 There were 1,406 permits issued during the year, 281 of which were not used. One permit was issued allowing animals to return from exhibition in another State, 11 allowing cattle to be unloaded en route through the State, and 11 allowing cattle to be pastured in the State during the season. During the spring and early summer agents of the department tested with tuberculin 427 head of cattle that were to be sent 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 57 into other States for pasture during the summer, mostly into New Hampshire, and 57 animals were tagged for the same purpose, making a total of 484 head. On account of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease during the final month of the previous year no permits for shipment of dairy cattle into the State were issued during the months of December, 1914, and January, 1915. On Feb. 1, 1915, cattle from Maine and Vermont were allowed, and on May 10 . this permission was extended to the State of New Hampshire. On July 1 cattle were allowed in from other States, but only under certain restrictions. Notwithstanding these restrictions there was a large increase in the number of dairy cattle brought to points outside the several quarantine stations, which is ac- counted for by the fact that Brighton market was closed to such shipments until August 30, and dealers who usually ship to that station were obliged to ship elsewhere. The record of cattle and calves brought into the State on permits for purposes of immediate slaughter is small, being only those of which the office of the department has report, and does not represent the amount of business in slaughter animals, as much of the time during the year such animals were allowed to be shipped, without special permit, to slaughtering establish- ments which were under United States government inspection. For several years, at the request of the United States Depart- ment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each month. The following table shows the receipts by months for the past year: — Receipts of Live Stock at Boston for Twelve Months ending Nov. 80, 1915. For Month of — . Cattle. Calves. Sheep. Swine. Horses. December, 8,244 8,792 29,051 137,860 2,485 January, 5,614 7,523 14,945 142,175 1,499 February, 4,168 5,827 16,356 129,031 1,861 March, 5,260 10,418 10,210 109,669 2,077 April, . 3,701 13,074 19,298 66,969 2,065 May, . 3,960 11,816 20,105 73,202 1,560 June, . 5,041 13,322 26,335 112,282 2,152 July, . 6,771 10,391 30,352 103,533 2,144 August, 7,803 8,031 32,185 55,874 1,628 September, 8,290 10,881 34,177 44,233 1,430 October, 10,046 12,400 40,488 40,056 1,338 November, 11,703 14,440 43,736 70,943 1,583 80,601 126,915 317,238 1,085,827 21,820 58 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Tan. Miscellaneous Diseases. Anthrax is a disease which is widely spread throughout the world, and is the cause of serious loss to Massachusetts cattle owners. As animals ordinarily succumb within a few hours of the onset of the disease, the first animals attacked on a par- ticular farm have generally died before treatment could be applied. On the notice of an outbreak of this disease all animals on the infected premises are immediately inoculated with anthrax serum and spore vaccine as a matter of safety. This inoculation is in most cases effective in immunizing the animals for a certain length of time, thereby preventing further extension of the disease at that point. As the spores of the causative agent of this disease remain lodged in the soil in an active state for many years in infected localities, it is necessary to continue preventive inoculation from year to year on premises where the disease has once appeared. Thirteen neat cattle and 1 sheep have died from this disease during the past year, and 72 neat cattle, 1 sheep and 10 horses have been given preventive inoculation. In quite a few instances the disease has appeared during the past year on premises where it has never been known before, and our efforts have been directed toward saving the animals exposed to the same conditions of pasturage and feed as those which have died. These efforts will be continued by preventive inoculation during the next season of all animals on premises where the disease has been known to exist. Blackleg, or symptomatic anthrax, has been the cause of death of 32 head of cattle, and 440 head have been given preventive inoculation. The same necessity for yearly pre- ventive treatment exists in control of this disease as in that of anthrax. Another disease which has been quite prevalent during the past year is hemorrhagic septicemia, from which 54 deaths have occurred. Differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult as between blackleg, anthrax and hemorrhagic septicemia, and a positive conclusion is reached only as a result of laboratory examination of specimens. All these diseases are characterized 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 59 by sudden inception and early death, and therefore require very prompt investigation upon the occasion of outbreak. Investigation now being made by the Federal government as to all conditions relating to source of infection, course of the disease, and prophylactic treatment has already been of great aid to this department, and promises to be of still further advantage in control work. The attention of the department having been called to the existence of scabies in sheep on the Island of Nantucket, an investigation of the same was made, which disclosed the fact that this disease had existed on the island for a long period of years, and that although the island was naturally adapted to sheep raising, many people had been deterred from engaging in that enterprise on account of the existence of this contagious disease. An agent of this department, in company with an inspector of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, made a thorough investigation. They were able to make a positive diagnosis of scabies affecting practically all the sheep on one farm, and were satisfied that it existed nowhere else on the island. Details of plans for eradication were taken up with the owner, and treatment was finally applied according to methods recognized as effective. The result is that the animals have been cured and the disease entirely eradicated from the island. Additional precautionary treatment of these animals will be insisted upon during the coming summer, in order that another outbreak may not occur, and that persons wishing to engage in sheep raising may do so without fear of losing their animals from this scourge which has been present on the island for so many years. Actinomycosis has been reported on 10 farms. Seven animals have been slaughtered, 2 have recovered, 1 proved not to be a case of this disease, and there is 1 animal still under observa- tion. Mange has been reported as existing on 11 farms. It was found in one instance, however, that it did not exist, and on the remaining 10 places 9 head of cattle, 2 dogs, 1 horse and 35 swine were affected. Treatment was accordingly advised with the result that no extension of the disease has been reported. 60 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. Suspicious symptoms of contagious disease have been re- ported in twenty instances where upon investigation no disease of a contagious nature was found. Annual Inspection of Fakm Animals and Premises. The inspection of neat cattle, other farm animals and premises upon which they are kept, which for a number of years has been made annually by the inspectors of animals of the different cities and towns, by order of the commissioner of this department, was the past year omitted on account of the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease. An order directing this inspection to be made was sent from the office of the depart- ment on Jan. 22, 1915, when it seemed as if the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease was at an end; but a secondary out- break of this disease occurring a few days later the order was revoked, it being deemed unwise to take the chance of spreading the infection by means of the inspectors traveling from farm to farm, as it had been found by experience that the most common means by which this infection had been spread was by people carrying the same on their clothing from one farm to another. Furthermore, cattle owners who were making in- dividual efforts to maintain a quarantine of their own premises were very much averse to having people enter their barns unless it seemed to be absolutely necessary. Barn inspection by the different agents of the department has for the same reason been limited to instances where contagious disease has been known to exist, and to farm-to-farm inspection necessary to determine the extent of any outbreak of foot-and- mouth disease in any particular locality. 1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 61 Financial Statement. Appropriation for the salary of the commissioner, chapter 126, Acts of 1915, . . ... . . Total expenditure, . . . . . . . . Appropriation for clerical assistance and contingent expenses, chap- ters 126 and 369, Acts of 1915 Expended during the year: — For expenses of the commissioner, . . . $278 58 For salaries of clerks and stenographers, . . 3,607 61 For printing, postage, stationery, etc., ." . . . 5,091 11 Total expenditure, Unexpended balance, Appropriation for compensating owners of animals killed and prop erty destroyed during epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, chapter 277, Special Acts of 1915, . Total expenditure, . . ... Unexpended balance, Appropriation for the extermination of contagious diseases among domestic animals, chapter 125, Acts of L915, Transferred by State Auditor from appropriation for extraordinary expenses, . . . Total amount appropriated, . Expended during the year: — For 1,094 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of tuberculosis in 1913, 1914 and 1915, paid for in 1915, . . For 389 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders and farcy in 1912, 1913, 1914 and 1915, paid for in 1915, ...... For expenses of killing and burial and disinfection of premises, . . . For quarantine claims, .... For laboratory and experimental station expenses, For implements, ear tags, thermometers, etc., For quarantine station expenses, . For services of agents, For expenses of agents, .... Total expenditure, .... Unexpended balance, $3,500 00 $3,500 00 ),500 00 $8,977 30 522 70 $9,500 00 led and prop- outh disease, $113,195 12 36,804 88 $150,000 00 $150,000 00 $133,000 00 2,500 00 $135,500 00 ,295 72 19,600 00 8,776 32 564 25 3,405 33 1,308 27 6,106 03 38,679 34 21,704 50 $135,439 76 60 24 $135,500 00 62 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 1916. The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year was $32.26. There has been received during the year from the sale of hides and carcasses of condemned animals, sale of tuberculin and serum, and for the testing of cattle for nonresident owners, $5,557.29. Claims for 115 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuberculous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to $3,414. Claims for 34 horses condemned and killed during the year because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law will amount to $1,650. The undersigned assumed the duties of the head of the de- partment on Jan. 2, 1915. Respectfully submitted, LESTER H. HOWARD, Commissioner of Animal Industry. s H OCT ?i 1926 4MJB hb Hi ■ ■'•■■•■• ■ ■-•• gssssgggii ■••■'■•?■■ j p jw n flfl g ftBflgl a gffigO Bg ll ■ v § ' '